"Leopard Land" - a national park in Primorsky Krai
The deplorable situation in which the population turned out to beFar Eastern leopard and other species of plants and animals from the Red Book, living in Primorsky Krai, forced the scientific community, the public and government officials to approach cardinally this issue. As a result, the "Land of the Leopard" was established - a national park, which was formed by merging and reassigning nature protection facilities.
The history of the formation of the park "Land of the Leopard"
Creation of the park is dated April 5, 2012., when the Russian Government issued a decree on its establishment. However, history dates back to 1910. It was then that the Slavonic forestry was first founded, and on May 25, 1916, the draft of the Kedrovaya Pad reserve was approved by the decision of the Primorsky Forest Society. At first, its area was 4.5 thousand hectares. In 1951, it was increased to 17.5 thousand. By this year, the fauna of the southwestern Primorye has become significantly impoverished: the red wolf, wapiti and sable disappeared. In Korea, China, southern Sikhote-Alin and in the vicinity of Lake Khanka, the population of the Far Eastern leopard practically ceased to exist.
To preserve the individuals that survived, in 1979 The reserve "Barsovy" was organized, and in 1996 - "Borisov Plateau", merged in 2008 into one facility called "Leopard". It, along with the reserve "Kedrovaya pad", became part of the nature protection structure called "Leopard Land".
The tasks and activities of the national park
Before its creation in nature there lived only about 30representatives of the Far Eastern subspecies of the leopard, but after a year of working with photo-traps, almost 50 individuals were recorded. The task is to bring this number to 100-120 cats to provide a kind of safe survival. The Primorye Territory is the only place on the planet where the area of this animal has been preserved, which has been halved in the last two decades. Therefore, the main task of the park is to preserve and increase the size of the species.
The tourist direction is actively developing: laying and certification of ecological paths and tourist routes are carried out, the territory is being improved. There are already guided tours along the route "The Leopard Trail". Photohunting is being introduced: photolabases are being set up for this purpose - special camouflaged houses for two people, inside of which photo-hunters await the appearance of animals.
Far Eastern leopard
It is the least numerous and almost the smallest,but the most frost-resistant subspecies of the spotted predator of the nine existing ones, which receives the most attention in the territory of the nature protection complex "Land of the Leopard". The national park has all the conditions for successful reproduction of the population size.
He has excellent eyesight: from a distance of 1.5 km the beast can see its prey, so for settling, he prefers steep ridges, which also help him avoid meeting the tiger - his natural enemy. He is an excellent climber, runner, swimmer and jumper. From the place the Far Eastern leopard can jump five meters high. This result is achieved due to its long tail, which also serves as a balance for maneuvers and descent from a steep slope. The Far Eastern leopard is capable of dragging prey exceeding its own weight by 2 times.
Interesting facts about the national park "Land of the Leopard"
The park has a maximumnumber of species of wildlife in Northeast Asia, of which about 40 are rare and endangered, listed in the Red Book of Russia and IUCN, which require urgent measures to save them. Among them are the Amur goral, Japanese mohair (a species of moles), a giant shrew, a Nepalese marten (Kharza) and other animals that successfully exist in the nature protection complex "Land of the Leopard".
The national park covers about 60% (360 thousand people) ha, taken under different protection regimes) of the range of the Far Eastern leopard. Here are all the known "maternity hospitals", which predators have been using for many generations. Along with the Far Eastern subspecies of the leopard, there are 10 Amur tigers - the largest cats on earth, as well as a lynx and a forest cat.
The Primorsky Territory, together with the Caucasus, was not affectedthe last icing, thanks to which the rich not only fauna, but also the flora was preserved. For this reason relic types of plants of Cretaceous and Tertiary periods grow here, as well as 8 varieties of maple, 5 species of birch, yew spiked, Korean pine, Manchurian aralia.
Boundaries of the Land of the Leopard
The territory of the park is located in the South-WestPrimorsky Krai covers the environs of the Khasansky, Nadezhdinsky and Ussuriisky districts, as well as the cities of Vladivostok: from the Amursky Gulf (the Sea of Japan) to the border with China and further, from the southern limits of the Poltava Reserve to the Tumen River bed on the state border of Russia, leopard ".
The national park is mostly located inHasan district and stretched from the south to the north for about 150 km. The whole western border of the reserve passes along the state border of Russia with the PRC. The eastern side extends partly alongside the Razdolnoye-Hasan railroad, and goes to the section of the Melkovodnaya Bay near the station. "Primorskaya" and rests on the shore of the Amur Bay.
The Leopard Trail
This ecological trail with a length of 1680meters has been in operation since 2006. On it two-hour excursions are conducted. In continuation of this event, you can not only enjoy the beauty of the forest landscape, but also learn how the reserve "Land of the Leopard" was formed, hear interesting stories about the unique Far Eastern leopard and the nature of this land.
The path, the difference in altitude is 100meters, is equipped with observation platforms, parking for rest, information stands and bridges through picturesque decay. The route crosses the areas of deciduous forest with plantations of cedar of different ages and rare plants, and also passes through the fern forest. These zones give a clear idea of the "house" of the leopard. Lovers of history will be able to see the remains of the defensive structures left after the battles of the Soviet troops with the Japanese and Chinese armies.
Zones of the Land of the Leopard
The whole territory of the national park is divided intosectors of different modes. The reserved zone (30 thousand hectares) covers the Borisov Plateau, where the most important sites for the leopard are located. Specially protected area of 120 thousand hectares is located along the border strip. His goal, in addition to protecting the leopard, is to strengthen the protection of the state border. Enter here only by a special pass.
The area of the so-called economic zone - 38thousand hectares. It includes lands of state land, agricultural purpose and military training grounds. The recreational area of 72 thousand hectares is created for the purpose of organizing outdoor recreation and cognitive tourism. Along with the economic, it is available for free visiting and fishing, picking up mushrooms and berries.