Classification of global problems of modern civilization and their characteristics
In the course of its development, human civilizationrepeatedly encountered and continues to face a number of certain difficulties and challenges. In the twentieth century, these problems were greatly sharpened and acquired a completely new, threatening character. They concern absolutely all the inhabitants of the planet, affecting the interests of many countries and peoples of the world.
The essence of the concept of "global problem", classifications of global problems and possible recipes for their solutions will be discussed in this article.
The history of relationships in the "man-nature" system
The interaction of man and nature changed fromthe passage of time. Once upon a time, the human body was maximally organically inscribed in the surrounding landscape. But then he began actively "adjusting" nature to his needs and needs, increasingly changing the earth's surface, penetrating into the bowels of the planet and mastering its new shells.
In general, we can distinguish five milestones (stages) in the history of the relationship between man and nature:
- The first stage (about 30 thousand years ago). During this period a person adapts to the surrounding nature. He is mainly engaged in gathering, hunting and fishing.
- The second stage (about 7 thousand years ago). At this time, a person's revolutionary transition from gathering to agriculture takes place. First attempts are made to transform the surrounding landscape.
- The third stage (IX-XVII century). The era of the development of crafts and the first serious wars. Human pressure on the environment increases many times.
- The fourth stage (XVIII-XIX century). The world is sweeping the industrial revolution. Man tries to completely subjugate nature.
- The fifth stage (the twentieth century). Stage of the scientific and technological revolution. It was at this time that all the global problems of mankind, and especially environmental ones, were significantly sharpened.
Acquaintance with such a distant prehistory of developmentour civilization will help to more thoroughly approach the issue of classification and characterization of global problems. Almost all of them fully manifested themselves only in the second half of the twentieth century.
Global problems, their essence and main causes
Before turning to the consideration of specific global problems of civilization and their classification, it is necessary to understand the essence of this concept.
So, they should be understood as those problems,which affect the life of everyone on the planet Earth and require for their resolution the joint efforts of various international organizations, nations and states. It is important to learn one key point: ignoring these problems casts doubt on the continued existence of terrestrial civilization. And the most dangerous for mankind are military and environmental threats. In the classification of global problems today they occupy an "honorable" (that is, the most important) place.
Among the main reasons for the emergence of global problems is the following:
- objective opposition between man and nature;
- discrepancy between cultures and worldviews within human civilization;
- rapid development of science and technology;
- rapid population growth;
- a sharp increase in the volume of consumption of natural and energy resources.
Approaches to the classification of global problems
So, we have already determined what problems can beconsider global. In addition, we found out that they can be solved only on a planetary scale and by joint efforts. Now let's take a closer look at the existing classifications of global problems. Philosophy, ecology, economics and other social sciences give this issue a lot of attention.
It is important to note that the classification is neveris an end in itself for scientists. After all, with its help, it is possible to identify the essential links between the components, and also to determine the degree of importance (priority) of these or those phenomena. In addition, the classification helps to study the object under study more deeply and fundamentally.
To date, there are severalvariants of classification of global problems of mankind. And each of them primarily reflects the views of one or another researcher in this field of knowledge.
It is important to note the fact that the classificationsglobal problems of our time are dynamic. After all, the very object of research is extremely dynamic. The world is changing rapidly, and with it the threats are changing. So, a few decades ago the problem of terrorism was not so acute in the world. Today, it is increasingly on the agenda of the UN summits and other organizations.
Thus, the classification of global problemsmankind, developed and actively used by scientists yesterday, tomorrow can already become irrelevant. That is why research in this direction does not stop.
Global problems of modern civilization and their classification
The severity of global problems and their prioritysolutions - these are the main criteria that underlie the most popular approach to their classification. Global problems, according to him, are divided into three main groups:
- The problems caused by the contradictions and conflicts between different states (the problems of war and peace, terrorism, etc.).
- The problems that arose in the process of human-nature interaction ("ozone holes", "greenhouse effect", pollution of the World Ocean and others).
- Problems related to the functioning of the "Human-Society" system ("demographic explosion", infant mortality, female illiteracy, the spread of AIDS and other dangerous diseases, etc.).
According to another classification of global problems, they are all divided into five groups. It:
- spiritual problems.
List of key global problems of the modern world
The issues of the essence and classification of globalMany modern researchers are involved in problems. All of them agree on one thing: none of the existing states today is able on their own to cope with these serious challenges and threats.
At the beginning of the XXI century, the following problems of humanity can be called priority:
- the problem of war and peace;
- terrorist threat;
- the problem of social inequality;
- the North-South problem.
It should be noted that many of the above global problems are closely related to each other. So, for example, the food problem stems from the demographic.
Ecological problems of modern civilization
Under global environmental problemsimply a rather wide range of threats caused by degradation of the Earth's geographic envelope. First of all, we are talking about the irrational use of natural resources (mineral, water, land and others) and the contamination of the planet with human waste.
In the classification of global environmental problems, it is customary to identify the following negative processes:
- air pollution of the atmosphere with exhaust fumes, emissions from industrial enterprises, etc .;
- contamination of soils with heavy metals, pesticides and other chemicals;
- depletion of water resources;
- total and uncontrolled deforestation;
- erosion and salinization of soils;
- pollution of the waters of the World Ocean;
- extermination of certain species of flora and fauna.
Worldwide consumption of fuel resourcessignificantly increased in the second half of the twentieth century. The largest oil and gas fields are depleted at a frantic pace. And if in developed countries the problem of depletion of energy resources is somehow trying to be solved, in developing countries it is most often simply ignored.
There are at least two methods of solutionenergy problem. The first of them is the active development of nuclear energy, and the second implies the widespread use of non-traditional energy sources (the Sun, wind, tides, etc.).
The essence of this global problem lies in thethe inability of human civilization to provide itself with the necessary food. So, according to the World Health Organization, on the planet today, about 1 billion people are starving.
The food problem is clearly pronouncedgeographical character. Scientists conditionally allocate a "belt of hunger", bordering on both sides the line of the earth's equator. It covers the countries of Central Africa and some states of Southeast Asia. The largest percentage of hungry people is recorded in Chad, Somalia and Uganda (up to 40% of the total population of the country).
The demographic problem
The demographic problem was particularlysecond half of the twentieth century. And it has a twofold character. So, in a number of countries and regions there is a "demographic explosion", when the birth rate is much higher than the mortality rate (Asia, Africa, Latin America). In other countries, on the contrary, too low birth rates are registered against the background of the general aging of the nation (USA, Canada, Australia, Western Europe).
Many economists call "demographicexplosion "is the main cause of total poverty in many countries of the third world. That is, the population growth is much faster than the growth of the economies of these states. Though other experts assure that the problem is not so much in the growth of the world population, but in the economic backwardness of some countries of the world.
The Problem of War
Human civilization, by and large, is notmade no lessons from the Second World War. Today in different parts of the world new conflicts and local wars are flashing up and down. Syria, Palestine, Korea, Sudan, Donbass, Nagorno-Karabakh - this is not a complete list of the current "hot spots" of the world. One of the main tasks of modern diplomacy is the prevention of a possible Third World War. After all, with the invention of nuclear weapons, it can end very quickly and leave the planet without humanity at all.
The problem of terrorism is another serious threatmodern world. In a way, it has become a negative symbol of the new century. New York, London, Moscow, Paris - almost all the major megacities of the planet in the last two decades have felt the seriousness of this threat.
The problem of social inequality
Social inequality is a deep gap in theThe income between a tiny percentage of very rich people and the rest of the world's inhabitants. According to many experts, this situation in the world led to three main reasons:
- reduction of labor remuneration;
- the evasion of oligarchs from paying taxes;
- merging big business with power.
The problem of social inequality is most clearcan be traced in the post-Soviet states, as well as in the underdeveloped countries of Asia and Latin America. Here it inevitably leads to the poverty of the working population - that is, to the inability of people to satisfy their basic needs.
The North-South problem
This is another global problem that clearlyis connected with geography. Its essence lies in the deepest social and economic gap between the developed and developing countries of the world. It so happened that the former are located mainly in the "north" (in Europe and North America), and the latter - on the "south" of the planet (in Africa, Asia and South America). The border between these states is shown on the following map: conditionally rich countries are painted in blue, and the conditionally poor countries are red.
Statistics striking: The income level in the richest countries of the world is 35-40 times higher than in the poorest countries of the world. And over the past decade, this gap has only increased.
Solving Global Problems
Resolution of a number of urgent and acute problemshumanity is one of the main tasks of modern science. And it does not matter what kind of science it is - ecology, physics, medicine or geography. After all, most often the solution of a particular global problem should be sought at the junction of two or more scientific disciplines.
In 1968, on the initiative of the Italianindustrialist Aurelio Peccei established an international organization called the Roman Club. The main task of this organization is to attract the attention of the world public to the global problems of mankind. Every year, the Club of Rome prepares one large-scale report. The organization determines the theme of the report, and also finances all the necessary studies.
During its existence, the Club of Rome madea significant contribution to the study of the biosphere and the propagation of the idea of harmonization of relationships in the "human-nature" system. Up to 2012 Russia in this international public organization was represented by physicist and educator Sergey Kapitsa.
As a conclusion, it should be noted that the solutionglobal problems - this is by no means the prerogative of individual officials, ministers or scientists. This duty falls on the shoulders of all, without exception, the inhabitants of the Earth. Each of us today must think about what it can do specifically for the benefit of our planet.