The first capitalist country. Former capitalist countries. The economic development of the capitalist countries
During the Cold War, capitalistthe United States of America confronted the socialist state of the USSR. The confrontation between the two ideologies and the economic systems built on their basis resulted in the years of conflict. The collapse of the USSR marked not only the end of an entire era, but also the collapse of the socialist model of the economy. The Soviet republics, now ex-capitalist countries, albeit not in pure form.
Scientific term and concept
Capitalism is an economica system based on private ownership of the means of production and their use for profit. The state in this situation does not distribute goods and does not fix prices on them. But this is an ideal case.
The USA is the leading capitalist country. However, even she does not apply this concept in its pure form in practice since the Great Depression of the 1930s, when only tough Keynesian measures allowed the economy to start after the crisis. Most modern states do not trust their development solely in the laws of the market, but use strategic and tactical planning tools. However, from this they do not cease to be capitalist in their essence.
Prerequisites for transformation
The economy of the capitalist countries is built onthe same principles, but each of them has its own peculiarities. From one state to another, the degree of market regulation varies, social policy measures, obstacles to free competition, and the share of private ownership of factors of production. Therefore, several models of capitalism are singled out.
However, one must understand that each of them iseconomic abstraction. Each capitalist country is individual, and the features are changing with the passage of time. Therefore, it is important to consider not just the British model, but a species that, for example, was characteristic of the period between the First and Second World Wars.
Stages of formation
The transition from feudalism to capitalism in countriesThe West took several centuries. Most likely, it would have lasted longer, if not for the bourgeois revolution. So there was the first capitalist country - Holland. There was a revolution in the course of the war for independence. We can say this, since after liberation from the oppression of the Spanish crown in the country, not the feudal nobility but the urban proletariat and the commercial bourgeoisie were at the head.
The transformation of Holland into a capitalist countrysignificantly stimulated its development. Here the first financial exchange opens. For the Netherlands, it was the eighteenth century that became the zenith of its power, the economic model left behind the feudal economies of European states.
However, soon the outflow of capital begins to England,where the bourgeois revolution is also taking place. But it uses a completely different model. Instead of trading, betting is made on industrial capitalism. However, most of Europe remains feudal.
The third country, where capitalism wins, is the United States of America. But only the Great French Revolution finally destroyed the established tradition of European feudalism.
The development of capitalist countries is historymore profit. How it is distributed, this is a completely different matter. If the capitalist state manages to increase its gross product, then it can be called successful.
The following distinguishing features of this economic system can be distinguished:
- The basis of the economy is the production of goods andservices, as well as other types of commercial activities. The exchange of labor products occurs not through coercion, but in free markets, where competition laws operate.
- Private ownership of the means of production. The profit belongs to their owners and can be used at their discretion.
- The source of life's benefits is labor. And no one forces anyone to work. The inhabitants of the capitalist countries work for a monetary reward, with the help of which they can satisfy their needs.
- Legal equality and freedom of entrepreneurship.
Varieties of capitalism
Practice always introduces corrections to the theory. The nature of the capitalist economy varies from one country to another. This is due to the ratio of private and public property, the volume of public consumption, the availability of production factors and raw materials. Their imprint is imposed by the customs of the population, religion, legal framework and natural conditions.
There are four types of capitalism:
- Civilized is typical for most countries in Western Europe and the United States.
- The homeland of oligarchic capitalism is Latin America, Africa and Asia.
- Mafia (clan) is typical for most countries of the socialist camp.
- Capitalism with an admixture of feudal relations is common in Muslim countries.
It should be noted at once that this varietyis a kind of standard. Historically, civilized capitalism appeared first. A characteristic feature of this model is the widespread introduction of new technologies and the creation of a comprehensive legislative framework. The economic development of the capitalist countries that adhere to this model is the most stable and systematic. Civilized capitalism is characteristic for the states of Western Europe, the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey.
It is interesting that China introduced thismodel, but under the clear leadership of the Communist Party. A distinctive feature of civilized capitalism in the Scandinavian countries is the high degree of social protection of citizens.
The oligarchic variety
The countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia seekinherit the example of developed countries. However, in practice, it turns out that they own a few dozen oligarchs. And the latter do not at all seek to introduce new technologies and create a comprehensive legislative framework. They are interested only in their own enrichment. However, the process is gradually proceeding, and oligarchic capitalism is gradually beginning to transform into a civilized one. However, this takes time.
The development of capitalism in the post-Soviet countries
After the collapse of the USSR, now free republicsbegan to build the economy according to their understanding. The society needed deep transformations. After the collapse of the socialist system, everything had to start again. Post-Soviet countries began their formation from the first stage - wild capitalism.
In Soviet times, all property was in the hands ofstates. Now it was necessary to create a class of capitalists. In this period, criminal and criminal groups are beginning to form, whose leaders will then be called oligarchs. They, through bribes and political pressure, took possession of a huge amount of property. Therefore, the process of capitalization in the post-Soviet countries was characterized by inconsistency and anarchy. After a while this stage will end, the legislative base will become comprehensive. Then we can say that the clan capitalism has grown into a civilized one.
In Muslim society
A characteristic feature of this type of capitalismis to maintain a high standard of living for citizens of the state through the sale of natural resources, for example, oil. Only the mining industry receives wide development, everything else is bought in Europe, the USA and other countries. Production relations in Muslim countries are often built not on objective economic laws, but on Shariah commandments.