Architect of St. Peter's Cathedral. Chief architect of St. Peter's Cathedral
The Cathedral of St. Peter is one of the greatest Christian churches in the World. This place is rightly considered sacred, because in the Vatican there are many sacred relics and memorials.
About the Cathedral
Rome is one of the most ancient cities in the world withrich in history and amazing architecture. Every year tourists from all over the world come to the capital of Italy to see the sights of the city. One of the most famous places is St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
The architecture of this structure is striking from the firstlook: a huge spacious dome, columns and a high obelisk in the middle of the square ... All this looks majestic and impressive. A closed, sacred place for all Christians - the Vatican - opens the veil of secrecy, allowing you to be in one of the many parts of the temple.
Who is the architect of the Cathedral of St. Petra? He was not alone, they often changed, but this did not stop to create a beautiful structure, which is considered a subject of world cultural heritage. The place where the Pope lives - the main face of the world Christian religion - will always remain one of the greatest and most popular among travelers. The sanctity and significance of this temple for humanity can not be overemphasized.
St. Peter's Cathedral outside
That building, which can be seen today, was completely thought out by the architect of the Cathedral of St.
Petra - Michelangelo.
Sculptural groups on the facade of the temple - the greatestthe creation of the best masters of Italy. Looking closer, you can see that these tall statues depict Jesus Christ, John the Baptist and the apostles. The obelisk near the temple also has its meaning. In other words, it is called a "needle", and it is believed that the remains of Julius Caesar rest on its foundation.
The colonnade, which connects on both sides of the cathedral -also an important part of the architectural complex. It was erected on the project of one of the architects of St. Peter's Cathedral - Bernini. At the top of the colonnade is a series of statues of one hundred and forty saints. Among them - a significant number of women. All of them look at St. Peter's Square from the height of the colonnades.
In front of the entrance stands a statue of the apostle Paul - a symbolic movement of the sculptors, which draws a parallel between the entrance to Paradise and the entrance to the Cathedral.
St. Peter's Cathedral: history, description
The history of the construction of the building is full of mysteries and mysteries. Unfortunately, St. Peter's Cathedral is a relatively new temple compared to other shrines of Europe. The one that exists today is largely different from that of the cathedral, over which the great architects and sculptors worked.
Many historical events took place in the church. The foundation of the temple and the first basilica were built under the emperor Constantine, and in 800 the coronation of the King of the Franks and the Lombards of Charlemagne took place, which for the first time united the French lands.
During its existence, the construction of the buildingseveral times burned and again restored by the architects. Many efforts have been made to restore St. Peter's Cathedral. The holy places of Rome, to which every year pilgrims make pilgrimages - almost all of them are here.
This place is especially important for the whole Christian world: here you can visit the room where the relics of the Apostle Peter are stored.
The history of the temple is so great that it is difficultanswer the question: "What great architects were the main builders of St. Peter's Cathedral?" This building saw different artists, sculptors and architects, but did really important things only a few.
Many people have made efforts to create such aproject, like St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Michelangelo Buonarroti - the chief architect of the temple, whose contribution to its construction was very significant. He was hired by one of the most influential families of Florence - the Medici. The architect of St. Peter's Cathedral, which was earlier, planned to make a dome in the form of an elongated cross. But it is thanks to the idea of Michelangelo, the dome of the cathedral has a spherical shape. As the chief architect of St. Peter's Cathedral, the artist created murals and sculptures for the church. Soon one of the representatives of the Medici family was elected Pope. The newly elected Leo X appointed Michelangelo, now officially, the chief architect of the Cathedral.
Interesting is the fact that the great sculptor andthe artist Buonarroti for a long time refused to work on the architecture of such a project as the Cathedral of St. Peter. Michelangelo, however, then agreed and radically changed the idea of construction.
Sculpture and remains of the Apostle Peter
The statue of the apostle Peter is the mainSightseeing of the Cathedral. The sculpture seems both harsh and welcoming. In addition, she is considered a saint. There is a tradition: after visiting the cathedral, you must definitely touch the foot of this figure. It is believed that after this the spirit of the apostle Peter releases all his sins to man. The heart of one who touches one's feet must be clean, even if a person has committed many bad things. Every day, those who want to touch the marble foot of the saint are so numerous that the caretakers of the museum have to polish its surface from time to time.
However, the most sacred place is considered to be another place. It is underground. This is a crypt where the relics of the saints are kept. A column with the remains of the apostle Peter, after whom the Cathedral is named - the most important part of the whole temple-museum. The chief architect of St. Peter's Cathedral created a descent into the crypt. It resembles a ladder to the underworld, however, after descending, all pay attention to the remains - the skeletons of the saints. In the crypt is quite dark, which creates a sensation of the other world.
Dome of the Cathedral
The dome of St. Peter's Basilica is one of the largest in Europe. It rests on four massive pillars decorated with stucco and sculptures.
Above the pillars are loggias, where relics were previously stored. Under each of the relics a corresponding statue of a saint was built.
The sculpture of the Apostle Andrew the First-Called is a man who holds the beam of a tree and calls to Heaven. On his face is an expression of pain and suffering.
Another statue is the Holy Equal-to-the-Apostles queen Elena. She holds a huge cross - a symbol of the Faith. Her second hand is directed towards the viewer, her face is calm and peaceful.
A very different mood is conveyed by the sculptureSaint Veronica. In her pose is dynamics, movement. Saint Veronica holds the boards in her hands, which she handed to Jesus to wipe his face. She as if hands him, and in the expression of her face - determination and confidence. The fourth column is decorated with a statue of St. Longinus. The saint looks menacingly sternly, in one of his hands - a spear. The other hand extends to the side. In his pose you can read anger and a thirst for justice.
Sex from the tombstones. Sculpture "Moses"
The Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome and its tombstones - the most exciting in the whole temple. Its feature is that in one of the halls of the Cathedral the floor is a series of tombstones.
When you walk on it, you feel incredible excitement, a sense of holiness and connection with the Almighty.
Inside the temple there are many frescoes, mosaic paintings on the floors, ceilings, walls ... High art is everywhere - images of biblical subjects.
The sculpture of Moses is one of the favorite places fortourists. This statue depicts the hero of the Old Testament, who brought his people out of the desert and became a great savior for Christians. Feelings of his mantle, expression of his face, tense muscles of his arms feel excitement, responsibility for all mankind. In his posture - readiness for the blows of fate, the desire to resist rock. The thick beard is fashioned so realistically that it seems like it's real hair. She gives Moses a stern look, which for a moment makes even frighten him.
Sculptures of the Right Nave
Famous marble Pieta, created by handsMichelangelo is a world masterpiece of art. The sculpture is supposedly alive, makes you feel a sense of sorrow, a quiet grief over the dying Christ. The folds of the fabric, the smooth face of the Virgin Mary - all this looks so realistic that it seems as if they, having overcome many centuries, were suddenly in the hall, and we have just become involuntary spectators of the tragedy that occurred. The eyelids of the Virgin Mary are lowered, she covered her eyes with grief. In the pose of Christ - the amazing helplessness. This sculpture - very strong psychologically and emotionally - was created over the years, and the slightest mistake could lead to the loss of form and the whole idea. However, the master Michelangelo created her so tender and sad that she looks really alive.
Not far from Pieta is the Tomb of Matilda of Tuscany, decorated with a sculpture of a woman warrior and several cupids at her feet. This work of art was performed by the sculptor Bernini.
The Sistine Chapel
One of the most famous frescoes of world art -created by Michelangelo Sistine Chapel. The largest at that time in scale, the picture was decorated with the largest cathedral in the world - St. Peter's Cathedral. At that time the Pope was Julius II. He invited the young Michelangelo to carry out this work. He still did not have sufficient skills in painting, but agreed and started to work. Today, in order to study this fresco in detail, it will take more than five hours. The variety of lines, folds of fabric on figures and subjects of the Bible captures and does not allow to look away. You can see Christ crucified on the cross, and scenes from the Old Testament ... For example, the creation of the world, the creation of Adam and Eve, the separation of water from the land, the expulsion of people from Paradise, bringing the sacrifice of Noah, the frightened Delphic sibyl, the prophets ...
At the corners of the chapel are the most ancient passages from the Bible: David and Goliath, the Copper Serpent, Judith and Holofernes, Punishment of Haman.
The chapel was restored several times, however it did not lose its beauty and integrity of the composition.