Icon painter Andrei Rublev: biography, creativity
Russian art contains many great works written by artists of the brush. All this can be fully attributed to the personality of the Russian icon painter, whose name everyone knows.
Many wonderful works created by Andrei Rublev, his biography - a vivid confirmation of this.
Basic information about life: childhood and the years of maturity
About the life of the Russian icon painter, already listed in our time to the rank of saints, today very little is known.
His birth is usually associated with 1360 or, in some sources, 1370 years.
Also it is not clear who his parents were. Perhaps they came from a noble class, and, perhaps, were simple farmers. There is a version that the father of the Russian artist came from a craft class. This conclusion is made by his last name, because the ruble is one of the carpentry tools. Although other versions are possible here.
Most likely, Andrew - this is the monastic name of the icon painter. The name given to him at birth was lost in the centuries.
Mention of this monk with a miraculous gift from God refers to 1405 and 1408 years. They are associated with the murals of cathedrals, which were reflected in the chronicles.
The historical life of A. Rublev
A great deal had time to make for his life a monk and icon painter Andrei Rublev. His biography, although scanty information, but lets understand what time this Russian artist lived.
And the historical period was difficult, although in Russia there was never an easy time.
It is believed that Andrei Rublev was born inMoscow principality, which experienced a difficult period in the second half of the 14th century. Moscow fought against Tver for the right to lead a fragmented Russian state, which was shaken by internal strife and raids by the Horde nomad conquerors. Moreover, it was during these years in Moscow that the plague raged, which then left, then again returned, taking with it thousands of human lives.
In 1380, the famous Kulikovskaya battle took place, which was the beginning of the liberation of Russian lands from the rule of the Horde khans and the supremacy of Moscow among other Russian cities.
In the same period lived the great Russian Saint Sergius, nicknamed in the people of Radonezh. At this time, wrote his amazing faces and the icon painter Andrei Rublev.
And, despite all the complexity, at this time there was also some kind of visionary enlightenment that gave hope that Russia could be reborn and become a strong and spiritually enlightened power.
Monk Andrey in Sergeeva Lavra
A few centuries later, when the name of Rubleventered into Russian books, they told of the fact that Andrew studied the mastery of the icon painter from his early youth under the guidance of experienced artists from the Troitsko-Sergiev Monastery. It was with the disciple of St. Sergius Nikon, also called Radonezhsky.
In many respects the development of the young man was influencedmonastic and human feat of the first hegumen of this monastery. Certainly, the example of Sergius inspired young Andrew to create high and inspired images.
The icons of Rublev and, in the first place, his famous "Trinity", remained to be kept in the laurel where hundreds of years later they were discovered by art critics struck by the skill of an ancient artist.
Then the way of life led the monk Andrew inAndronikov Monastery, founded also by the disciple of St. Sergius, named Andronik. The talented painter was respected by the notable people of that time. So, it is known that one of the sons of Dmitry Donskoy Vasily Dmitrievich invited Andrei Rublev to paint the palace chambers in the Kremlin itself.
Creativity Andrei Rublev was graduallyAttract and attention of contemporaries. In the chronicle of 1405 it is said that this monk was drawn to the painting of the Annunciation Cathedral in Moscow together with the famous artist of the time Feofan, nicknamed Greek, and the elder Prokhor. However, these murals have not survived to this day in connection with the grandiose restructuring of this cathedral.
Icons from the Annunciation Cathedral
The Annunciation Cathedral itself has not been preserved, but somehow icon painters from this church have miraculously survived to our time. In total, there are seven icons that are attributed to the artist's brush.
Rublyov's icons are: "Christmas", "Baptism", "Entry to Jerusalem", "Annunciation", "Sfense", Resurrection of Lazarus "and" Transfiguration ".
These icons, some of which are stillmuseums of the country, such as the famous Tretyakov Gallery, amaze the audience not only with a successful composition and a special kind of airiness of the images depicted on them, but also a special expression that is spelled out in faces. It is an extraordinary spiritual purity and profound faith.
A beautifully chosen palette of colors only strengthens this feeling.
The Assumption Cathedral in the city of Vladimir
Another milestone in the creative biography of Rublev,recorded in scrupulous chronicles, was the work together with other painters of that time over the paintings of the Assumption Cathedral of Vladimir. There was it approximately in 1408 year.
In addition to painting the walls, the masters created severaliconic faces, some of which are now in museums. The legacy of Russian painting of ancient Russia is kept not only by Andrei Rublev Museum, but also by the Tretyakov Gallery.
It was at this time, according to the judgment of art historians, was written the famous icon of the master called "Our Lady of Vladimir".
Most likely, in this cathedral monk Andreyworked already with the students. Today everyone can see here some of his frescoes, which surprise with their expressiveness and special enlightened spirituality.
Orthodox church of the Holy Trinity
It is known that somewhere in the 20-ies. 15th century monks Daniil Black and Andrei Rublev (these years are approximate) worked on the murals of the Holy Trinity Church, which was built over the burial place of the Monk Sergius.
The temple was laid stone (it survived until nowpores). However, the frescoes of this cathedral have not survived until today, but today you can see the real icons of Rublev created for this church. This is the "Apostle Paul", "Archangel Michael" and "Baptism." By the manner of writing and the ways in which figures are represented, these icons are very close to the style of the famous "Trinity." The museum of Andrei Rublev keeps these priceless treasures.
Judging by the chronicles, Comrade AndreyRublev - a monk Daniel, nicknamed Chernym, died in the Trinity Lavra. Here he was buried. Father Andrey went to the Andronikov Monastery to create his last works there.
Recent work of the icon painter
According to scientists, the last work of the master was the painting of the Church of the Savior, which he finished approximately in 1428.
Andrei Rublev lived a long creative life, the biography of the artist tells us about the day, hour and place of his death.
The famous Russian icon painter died in January1430 (most likely, on January 29). He was buried in Moscow, in the Andronikov Monastery (by the way, because Father Andrey Rublev found his last resting place here, this ancient monastery was not destroyed in the Soviet years).
In 1989, hundreds of years later, Father Andrey was listed by the Russian Church as a saint.
Andrey Rublev's works: famous finds in Zvenigorod
The name of the Russian artist of Ancient Russia would have been soremained faithful to oblivion, if not for the amazing find that Igor Grabar made. He happened to accidentally, in the quiet town of Zvenigorod near Moscow, near the ancient temple, discovered amazing icons, which, as it turned out, belonged to Andrei Rublev. And this find lay in an ordinary shed!
Icons were called "Zvenigorodskiy ranks", and only after a while it became known that the author was Andrei Rublev. Let us briefly consider all these works.
The most famous of them is the icon underthe name "Savior", preserved only partially. But the eyes of Christ, facing the people looking at him, amaze the audience. It is safe to say that the face of the God-man, deprived of sin and passions, and filled with a feeling of love for all living and infinite compassion, is looking at us from the icon.
All passing by this icon (and it is stored inThe Tretyakov Gallery) can not help but stop their eyes on her. There, in the Tretyakov Gallery, the original of the "Trinity" is also kept. The fate of this icon is very interesting.
He invested a lot of divine meaning in his creationAndrei Rublev. Biography of the artist can not reveal to us the secret of how a simple Russian monk was able to rise to such a height of spiritual comprehension of God's world. Perhaps, Exupery was right: "You can not see the most important thing".
For many centuries this icon hung in a heavy andcumbersome salary, closed from all these jewels, and only at the beginning of the last century, art historians were able to open it, clear the layers of many centuries and realize that this is a true masterpiece.