When and how did music appear?
People love music, because we all belongto the sight of living beings for whom sound plays an important part in life. Rhythm and tonality of sound signals is a way of transferring information and energy to each other. How did music come about? The language of people did not come from words, but from singing to convey emotional messages, semantic tonality and rhythm. Charles Darwin first put forward this theory, who wrote in 1871 the following lines: "The sound that birds emit is in comparison with a speech that goes back to singing and the beginning of the formation of words expressing different emotions of a complex character." To date, this version is considered correct.
Theory based on extensive researchconfirms that 70-80 thousand years ago humanity laid the foundation of the lexical components of the original speech. As the development of this innovation has become ordinary. Until then our ancestors could not speak, but only sing. Vocal cords of a person and a speech system are a complex musical instrument. Humans are beings who are able to sing. Where did the music come from? How did this happen? Maybe the first were dancing? For all these questions, you will find answers in the article.
How did music come about
There is no exact historical date when a personplayed the musical instruments and began to sing. If we adhere to the theory of Marx and Engels, the origin of musical sounds arose in antiquity when shouting, in order to synchronize the actions of a group of people performing complex collaborative work, where coherence is necessary.
For example: a group of people need to drag the carcass of an animal killed on a hunt, or move a large stone in order to cover the entrance to the cave. Singing also contributed to the improvement of monotonous work. As a result, some observant individuals noticed how beautifully the birds sing, and began to think about inventing their own particular motive.
How long has music appeared
How did music come about? When did a person start to practice it? For singing skills one should be able to keep the frequency of the pitch of sound under control. Studies of the crusted skulls and jaws of ancient monkeys revealed that the ancestor of modern man and Neanderthal man had the ability to sing. Whether he did it or not, it is impossible to know.
A not unimportant part of music is rhythm. Ancient people created rhythmic motifs with the help of clapping hands. This could serve for the emergence of ancient musical instruments - the knocking of sticks or stones against each other, and the hands do not hurt so much.
The first tools were also created from softmaterials that could not survive to our time - reeds, wood. The most ancient musical archaeological finds, from 39 to 44 thousand years old, made from bone tubes of birds of swans and kites. Other tool finds were found in unexpected places. For example, there is evidence that the ancient masters pierced holes in stalactite caves for the resonant frequency of sounds.
What first appeared: music or dancing?
One of the versions says that the melodies arose asan additional action to the dances, for this reason the main role was played by the rhythm, which helps the dancers not to stray. So did music, or dance first appear?
There is also a second assumption - the emergence of music as an aid in the work of people. The main role is also assigned to rhythmic movements, under which it is easier to perform the required work.
Music has appeared for a long time, and why it originated and persists to this day? It has such functions:
- Dancing. The question remains unknown: the first thing that appeared was music or dancing? Dancers came up with melodic sounds, or vice versa, the melody contributed to the emergence of uniform and adjusted movements?
- The desire to have fun in the company or alone.
- Communication at great distances when using musical instruments, for example, a drum, a pipe.
- Use of music for religious rituals.
A powerful reason for the emergence and preservation of music is the ability to unite people.
Interesting to know! Music is capable of uniting groups of people, a mother with a child. It brings up the spirit and mood in a period of monotonous work, contributes to the desire to move. Dances before the start of the battle are able to connect the participants into a morale-fueled union. There is a hypothesis that music has created a family and a society.
Dreamers and romantics were more colorfulthe idea of the sounds that hurt the soul, causing emotions. Music is a gift sent by the gods, a vibration that created the universe, angelic singing. Divine sounds can pacify the beast, move boulders, create universes.
Music - the highest form of information transfer, which allows people to immerse themselves in the world of the unknown. For this reason, sets of sounds, transformed into a melody, are so capable of disturbing the soul.
The emergence of Russian folk music
Where did Russian music come from? In ancient Russia, she always had a connection with rituals,beliefs and agriculture. Magicians came up with and performed ritual tunes, and buffoons folk. Various genres - epic, ritual, dance, lullabies sounded on holidays, in houses. Artists played at feasts and festivals, glorified the higher nobility. After the capture and liberation of Rus from the Tatar-Mongol invasions, Veliky Novgorod becomes a cultural center. There are such genres as a legend and a bell ringing.
Russian folklore contains such genres of songs:
- calendar ritual;
Interesting to know! Russian vocal creativity has a greater number of works in comparison with instrumental melodies. Impact of the excommunication of the church on the use of musical instruments in the temples. For this reason, folklore developed much better.
Bell ringing as a genre of music
The art of bell-ringing is a unique type of musical genre in Ancient Rus. The professional bell ringer had to learn to ring the bell ring for the rest of his life. There are three types of ringing:
- Blagovest is the measured bell of a large bell.
- Chime. Bells sound from the smallest to the largest, or vice versa.
- Reproduction of the melody on the bells.
Common Musical Instruments of Ancient Russia
Instruments in the old days were used in the shepherds' everyday life, or for dance and song accompaniment. Famous Russian musical instruments:
- military pipes;
- hunting horns;
Song styles in Old Russian music
In Ancient Rus, the songs were divided intoa couple of styles - single and choral. Tones and halftones passed alternating and formed a twelve-stage scale, it was called a church fret. It was divided into 4 consonances:
The origin of classical music
Classical works emerged in the IV century inperiod of the Middle Ages and continue to develop to this day. The main musical instruments used in classical works appeared until the middle of the XIX century. The melody is performed with the help of a symphony orchestra, which includes a typical copper, wooden, string and percussion instrument. Classics is based on "academic" genres and systems, which are an exemplary indicator of art. The main motifs of the symphony orchestra are the sound of the organ, piano and harpsichord.
In what century did classical music appear? Historical periods are as follows:
- Ancient antique - up to 400 years.
- Medieval from 400 to 1400 years. The music band was invented, the main musicians - troubadours, poets, singers.
- The revival covers the period of the XV-XVII centuries. There are various types of musical instruments, such as bow - violin, cello, double bass and keyboards - organ, harpsichord.
- Baroque XVII-XVIII century - the period of such famouscomposers like Bach and Vivaldi. Melodies were performed with the help of organ, plucked, stringed, wind and wooden instruments. There are opera, sonata forms.
- Classicism of the XVIII-XIX centuries presented mankind with talents - Mozart and Beethoven. There is a string orchestra.
- Romanticism of the XIX-XX century. Contribute to the greatest music geniuses - Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Tchaikovsky, Wagner. The piano sound is developing rapidly.
- XX century and the period of modern classical melodies (since 1975).
Classical works continue theirdevelopment in the modern world, influencing other directions in music. For example, in fatal works, classics are used in tonality. The classical direction of music is the perfection of harmonious sounds and integrity.