The theme of the homeland in the work of Lermontov M.Yu. Lermontov's poems about his homeland
Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov, of course, isone of the greatest Russian poets, whose name brought world literature to our country's literature. In its significance, it is placed on a par with such great geniuses as A.S. Pushkin and N.V. Gogol.
The main creative periods of the poet: romantic (1828-1832), transitional (1833-1836) and mature (1837-1841). The theme of the Motherland in Lermontov's work goes through all his work.
From the middle of the 1830s the poet begins in his own wayto master a special romantic conception of the historical and social process that was formed at that time in European philosophical aesthetics and historiography (AV Shlegel, GF Hegel, GG Gervinus, IG Herder, etc.), and also in the literature of Russia and Europe (F. Schiller, IV Goethe, A. Bestuzhev, V. Scott, N. Polevoy, K. Rileyev, early Gogol and others).
The connection of times and generations
As I.V. Goethe, the artist must feel this process as a fusion of past and present. According to G.G. Gervinus, a creative person as a participant must become a fighter "in the army of fate." Destiny is understood as the realization of eternal links between the future and the past in the events of the present.
Realizing himself in such a role, Lermontovcomes into the defense of the human person. Sensing the connection between generations and times, Mikhail Yuryevich at the same time is experiencing a dramatic break. The cold reality is opposed in the poet's mind to the heroic past of the Russian people. It hinders a feat, a socially important act, true love, which unites people into a highly developed society, puts them on a new stage of moral and spiritual self-realization and development.
Opposing the past, Lermontov,The theme of nature and the Motherland in which it is revealed in many works, according to V.F. Egorova wants to exclude the average component from the formula "personality-history-eternity". Protesting against history, Mikhail Yurievich sees his task in accusing the modern generation of inaction and apathy (the poem "Duma") and a reminder of the glorious heroic past of the people ("Borodino").
D.S. Merezhkovsky debunks the myth of Soloviev about the alleged "demonism" of Lermontov. He writes about the fact that sometimes, reading contemporary literature, the thought involuntarily arises that she exhausted the Russian reality. The connection between the last fifty years in the field of literature and reality, the author writes, is destroyed. This is reflected in the work of Lermontov.
"Song about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich"
"Song about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich ..."is included in a single epic text created by the author as a kind of dream, a dream of the legendary glorious past, when the Russians were" people in reality "capable of sacrificing, heroic deed and feat in the name of a high goal, the" eternal law "of being, heroic deeds.They continue very briefly, but remain in the memory of the people for centuries, combining the "moment" with "eternity." The theme of the Motherland in Lermontov's work is often revealed in such acts, which, according to Mikhail Yurievich, are later mythological
Lyrics of a new type
Lermontov created his poetry lyrics of the newtype, which united in direct interaction the tradition, historical and personal experience and the latest philosophical thought. It also synthesized the thirst for earthly happiness and intellectual reflection, generalization and personal passions and emotions, a sacral, metaphysical word and everyday speech.
Lermontov relied on all the essentialphilosophical concepts about the personality and human being (I. Kant, GVF Hegel, F. Schelling, IG Fichte, etc.), but did not give preference to any of them. His poetic thought turned into an instrument of self-knowledge and knowledge of the surrounding world, overcoming the limitations of rationalism and subjectivism of philosophical thought inherent in modern romanticism, eliminating the disharmony of modern reality, rushing to search for genuine spiritual values.
M.Yu. Lermontov, exposing the tragic situation of modern Russia and the thinking personality in our state, constantly sought various opportunities for the return of man to the national whole, to the people, to the collective, to God. As a result, the poet, having mastered and generalized the achievements of Russian and world poetic thought, opened the prospects for the development of a new direction - Symbolist poetry of the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as the poetry of the future in general.
The theme of the Motherland in Lermontov's poetry was revealed ina difficult transition time. With strength and expressiveness, Lermontov embodied the world of experiences and ideas of the spiritually developed person of the transitional epoch modern to him. Formed as a poet in the borderline period of the expansion of the feudal serf system and the lack of certainty in the future, he powerfully expressed this intermediate state of mind, tearing the shackles of the old concepts that are binding him, but not finding new foundations.
M.Yu. Lermontov. Homeland: theme and idea
The theme of the Motherland in the work of Lermontov,the relationship between the individual and the state forced Mikhail Yurievich to address the formulation of acute ethical and socio-philosophical problems. At the same time, it was incomplete, since the person in the poet's concept was not a totality of relations in society, but an individual viewed from the point of view of the universal nature.
Personality is shown by Lermontov in the confrontationa whole world, an effective, but often dangerous, denial of everything that constrained the freedom of lofty aspirations. At the same time, the poet appealed to his contemporaries. In the poem "The Duma", written in 1838, the sad thought of the generation, doomed to pass through life, leaving no trace in history, replaces his youthful dream of a romantic feat.
Lermontov considered himself obliged to informcontemporaries the truth about the deplorable situation in which their conscience and spirit were. According to Mikhail Yurievich, it was a resigned, weak-willed, cowardly generation, living without the slightest hope for the future. Such was the feat of the poet, perhaps more difficult than the willingness in the name of his country and her freedom to die on the scaffold. Since not only Lermontov's enemies, but even those for whom he communicated this mournful truth, accused Mikhail Yurievich of slandering contemporary society. And only VG. Belinsky, with his phenomenal vision, was able to see Lermontov's faith in honor and dignity of a person's life in a "chilled and non-malicious" attitude to life.
Feat for the Motherland
Mikhail Yuryevich did not want and could not hide histhoughts. All the poems, dramas, poems and tragedies created by his pen in thirteen years of intense creative work are truly a feat for the sake of the Motherland and freedom. The theme of the Motherland in Lermontov's work is reflected not only in the glorification of the Russian victory in the poem "Borodino", in the well-known lines "I love my fatherland ...", but also in many writings that do not explicitly refer to freedom or the Motherland, but about the appointment of the poet, the fate of the generation, senseless bloodshed, a lonely prisoner, the emptiness of life, exile. Recalling the modern generation of the heroic past of the people ("Song of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich", "Borodino"), he expressed faith in the creative, heroic potential of a person who can overcome the tragedy of the future, history and current situation. Love for the Motherland Lermontov was active, active.
The Hero of Lermontov in the poem "From AndreiCheney "reflects on the need for social action, in the works" July 10, 1830 "and" July 30 (Paris), 1830 "seeks to participate in revolutionary battles and welcomes its participants, in the poem" Prediction "he is attracted to the pictures of the uprising.
Homeland in the early lyrics
In the heroes of early poetry - Byron and Napoleon -Mikhail Yuryevich also sings a public deed. However, his views on the revolutionary upheavals, as well as the hero of the volitional action of Napoleon, are contradictory. Lermontov writes that the fatal year will come when the monarchy will be overthrown, people will stop loving the king, and "the food of many will be death and blood." The picture described - the result of the uprising in the state - is gloomy and completely different from the happy time that the hero was looking for. This is the apotheosis of chaos, destruction, inhuman suffering.
In the poem "Prediction", written morea sixteen-year-old poet in 1830, Lermontov prophesies of the inevitable catastrophe and the sad consequences of such events. He portrays the terrible figure of the executioner in a black cloak. This is a metaphor for the image of impenetrable darkness, visible already now because of clouds and smoke of a century.
Already in his early poems Lermontovexpresses disbelief in people and life, despair. Later, overcoming the attraction of the muse of Byron, he tries to find the support for his ideals in reality. The theme of the Motherland in Lermontov's work begins to sound different. He describes the love of his native land (remember, for example, the analysis of the poem "Homeland" Lermontov), a feeling of merging with nature, turning into an experience of harmony with the whole universe ("When the Yellow Field Fears").
Change of genre
Lermontov's poems on the theme "Motherland" by the indigenousthe way they change their genre. Didactics of the dispute between the early "Fields of Borodin" was superseded by a natural, ironic didactic intentionally simple and clear narrative. The work "Borodino" is a novel. Rather, it is a didactic novel in which the battle scenes are turned in their polemics towards an inert, listless, apathetic, according to the poet, the present. Belinsky interpreted Borodino as a two-pronged work, in which, in the foreground, the narrative of an old warrior, a realistic depiction of battle scenes, its panorama, and the second - the bitterness of reproach, the opposition of the past and the present, whose condemnation was even more pronounced in the poem The Duma.
The theme of the Motherland in Lermontov's work is inseparableis connected with the concept of the people and the people. Belinsky noted that Lermontov was imbued with the spirit of the people, merged with him. Let us note once again what the poet did in the period of timelessness. In these years, the issue of the future development of the state and its future is especially acute. In Mikhail Yurievich, the patriotic feeling was born very early and later became the most important. Being a fifteen-year-old boy, M.Yu. Lermontov, the theme of the Motherland, which runs through all of his work, wrote: "I love my motherland and more than many" (poem "I saw a shadow of bliss ...").
New lyrical hero
After 1837 the lyrical hero changes markedly: he began to feel equality with other people, is moving away from demonism. Defining himself as a victim of time, he recognizes himself as his representative. There is an interest in life and other people, even spiritual, inner unity with them, sometimes turning into reincarnation into a soldier or prisoner ("Neighbor", "Neighbor", "Prisoner", "Captive Knight"). In this approach, the hero opens up new opportunities. He increasingly feels the hopelessness of individualism, the insolubility of his internal contradictions, seeks to find support for his ideals. The theme of the Motherland begins to sound in a new way in the works of Lermontov.
Symbolic image of the motherland
The poet, being a romantic, created and symbolica generalized image of your country. Lermontov's poems on the theme "Homeland" depict it in the form of an ideal. Mikhail Lermontov, whose homeland meant a lot, despises people who do not have it, free from suffering and passions. He compares them to clouds (the poem "Clouds", 1840), always cold and free, rushing to the south from bored barren fields.