List of Brodsky for reading: reviews
List of Brodsky - what is it? This is not just a list of books, born by the stroke of the pen of an outstanding poet and essayist. This is his own way of learning literature. It is optimized for a person living in the 70s of last century. After all, a person must read many good books before becoming a poet or writer. Brodsky considered the value and virtue of the aesthetes of his generation that people from him, acting "exclusively by intuition", paved the way for creativity in a hostile humanity, in principle, a totalitarian environment.
Iosif Alexandrovich is a wonderful man. His biography is also unique. Is not it true that it looks somehow special - to be a poet and essayist, who is simultaneously creating for two diametrically opposite countries, the USSR and the USA and, having passed the poet's way to the end, to be buried in Venice, the birthplace of the Renaissance and the Xth region of the Roman Empire !!
Nadezhda Mandelstam, an elderly woman, oncetried to predict the fate of the young Brodsky: "He - nice ... small, but I'm afraid that it will end badly." So it turned out with Joseph Alexandrovich: in the USSR he stopped publishing, after which he was in the United States.
Recognition of Brodsky Abroad
Brodsky's list, as you know, was written by him inIn the mid-seventies of the last century, during forced emigration to the United States. Over the ocean, he was in the status of a professor at five American colleges. The assignment of academic titles of a person engaged in self-education to 15 years, was a precedent of recognition of his powerful intellect.
In the United States, the professor lived consistently in three cities: first in Ann Arbor, then in New York and finally in South Hadley.
Criterion for selecting books in Brodsky's list
The teacher did not just seek to turn his students into people who are versed in literature. He tried to transform their attitude to language.
The starting point of the routecards for the adherents (Brodsky list) is a quote from the poem of British William Oden "In the Memory of WB Yeats", stating that only a developed sense of language can "plunge", "entice" a person into poetic art.
And to accomplish this spiritual action, without stimulatingthe desire for self-education is impossible. An American professor of Soviet descent acquired the fame of an eccentric from the students. He was a teacher unique, requiring a creative reading of many works from students, in each of them young people needed to catch author's aesthetics. Evaluate the wise pedagogical reception of the professor should not from the point of view of the schoolboy, but from the perspective of the practical poet.
A sense of language like the Alpha and Omega of the poet's becoming
He had a great personal poetic experience andlong holding his hand on the pulse of world culture, Iosif Aleksandrovich demonstratively maintained that the formation of a real poet does not come from "thirst for creativity" and not from a clear understanding of the laws of the creation of poems. The main feature of such a person, according to Brodsky, is precisely the "sense of language". Without it poetry is dead.
Russian-speaking Internet users sometimesexpressed bewilderment, arising from the lack of a list of works of poets Pushkin, Lermontov, seeing in this some political insinuations. In reality, however, they can hardly be talked about.
After all, Brodsky's list was written by the Americanteacher for their students. And students were native English speakers. Therefore, in the list compiled by the poet, authors who gravitate toward Western values are represented. In the end, we are to blame: the poets, "walking barefoot on the edge of the knife" and "cutting their living souls into the blood", should be heard at home, perceived, understood by its people. Then Brodsky would not have been arrested and exiled, and he would have written his list for Russian-speaking students. And in the latter, for sure, there would have been Pushkin, Lermontov, and many others ...
Brodsky and the beginning of poetic activity
Iosif Alexandrovich did not make a secret for the familycastles your way into poetry. He told the students that in his youth, up to 15 years, he wrote poems episodically and casually. Once, when he was 16 years old, he signed up for a geological expedition. He worked near the Chinese border, north of the river. Amur.
In the expedition he read a volume of poetryBaratynsky, a poet of the XIX century (a companion of Pushkin). It was the poetry of Yevgeny Abramovich, in his influence on Brodsky, that activated his "sense of language". The impression of Baratynsky's creative work prompted him to develop, made the poet write really good poems.
Later the St. Petersburg young writer took note of the advice of his elder colleague, the poet Yevgeny Rein, whom he considered to be one of the best in Russia until the end of his days.
By the way, in his first reference Joseph Alexandrovich was sent because he was in the sphere of the special services (they constantly watched Anna Akhmatova, with whom the poet met).
The most original teacher and his list
His student Sven Birketts, who became famousliterary critic, recalls that his classmates Brodsky was remembered at the same time as the worst teacher, on the one hand, and the most charismatic on the other.
Why is the worst (it is unusual to hear this word incontext of the famous poet's name)? Sven thoroughly answers this question. The fact is that Joseph Alexandrovich did nothing at all to attract the bulk of students to literature.
He was an individualist, and Brodsky's listAssumed individual mastery of it by each adept. But those students who have bothered to read the books indicated in it, could always hope for a consultation, a conversation with the Master. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, Brodsky's voice was unusually saturated with shades. He spoke slightly in the nose and always told interesting stories. Friends jokingly called him "man-brass band."
For minutes of his frank conversation with the students there was no price.
The pedagogical method of Joseph Aleksandrovich, according to the memoirs of Sven Birkets, was unique. The teacher, rather, did not teach literature, but tried to convey the attitude towards it.
Illusion of immersion in literature
At the beginning of the pair he briefly presented one of theoutstanding works, which was filled with the horrifying some students-lazy list of Brodsky. And then he asked about the feelings caused by the poem of Akhmatova or Montale, led the student to the arena, saying the famous quotation of Sergei Diaghilev: "Surprise me." It was not easy for an American youth or a girl to explain, for example, whether Akhmatova successfully managed to depict the scene of a fire, or to reveal the imagery of the Iliad.
Not everyone was addressed to the highest praiseBrodsky: the only word is "wonderful." Most often, the average student routinely exposed his misunderstanding. And Brodsky at that time was hammering an unlit cigarette in his hand ...
But behind all this action there was a considerable share of humor. Having listened to the efforts of the student, Iosif Alexandrovich produced his famous deep exhalation, looked around the whole class, and then began to speak. He asked questions and answered them himself. He guided his adepts through the thickets of sounds and associations, filled the imagination of his listeners with the realization of the striking power of language. Sven Birkets and students like him were leaving those meetings with the sensation of invisible forces swirling around them, but unclaimed in ordinary life.
American humanists rated the list
List of Brodsky for reading was innovativestep in the formation of young Americans. They, previously trained in the John Dewey system, had the skills of independent thinking, the ability to critically evaluate social phenomena. But Joseph Alexandrovich did not recognize this system. At the first lessons he gave his students an impressive list, briefly informing the adherents that the next two years of their life should be devoted to this canon.
Indeed, starting with the outstanding canonical texts, Brodsky's list for reading and ending with the works of art of the 70s of the last century.
It is obvious that for modern students thisthe list can be supplemented. Among the sea of fiction, which appears annually and in abundance on the bookshelves, one should choose books that have real artistic value. Recall that the main criterion in this case should remain a sense of language, which was interpreted by Brodsky.
Contents list Brodsky. "Bhavat-gita", "Mahabharata"
The list of Joseph Brodsky begins with"Bhavat-gita" (God's songs). The value of this work lies in its focus on the development of human spirituality. It helps him solve the primary question: "Who am I?", Contributes to the achievement of the inner state necessary to achieve spiritual values. At the same time, Bhavat-gita covers life from everyday life to spiritual life, and is also closely related to reality.
The second work that mentions the listBrodsky to read, is the Mahabharata. It depicts an epic reflecting the problems of the social essence of the individual, the relationship of her freedom and destiny (destiny). The Mahabharata, on the one hand, welcomes unselfishness, and on the other hand, condemns the total renunciation of personal benefits.
Iosif Alexandrovich is in the third position amongthe main books that open the famous list of Brodsky, mentions the Holy Scriptures of Christians and Jews - the Old Testament. As you know, it was originally written in Hebrew. The central philosophical and philosophical part of it is the Sinaitic Covenant, - the obligations imposed by God on the people of Israel, which became the basis of the Torah (the law for fulfillment).
There is in the list of the famous poet and the first bestseller that has come down to us - a book about the hero of the ancient world, the adventurer, the lucky and charismatic Tsar Gilmagesh.
Brodsky's list is a voluminous listliterature, which can be classified. The poet was not the first person to make such a list. The well-known list of Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy is more balanced in chronology, in the direction of the impact on the readers. The list of Joseph Aleksandrovich is aimed at maintaining a "basic conversation" with them.
Right after spiritual works, logicallyBrodsky, follows a three-dimensional block of ancient literature: Sophocles, Homer, Herodotus, Horace, Marcus Aurelius, Aristophanes ... This list is incomplete, there are about 20 names in it. Brodsky himself in one of his interviews characterized his adherence to the literature of the ancient world with the development of "sense of time." So he called his understanding of the nature of time and its influence on people.
Why paid so close attentionancient Greek and Roman literature Joseph Alexandrovich? It is no secret that in literary circles they called him Roman. The poet used a conceptualizing and liberating literary mask. Arguing about the USSR, he allegorically called it "Rome".
A deep understanding of the essence of the empire (cult worship of Caesar, despotic power) was characteristic of him, identifying himself with the disgraced and exiled poet Ovid.
The poet presented an account not so much of the Soviet (Roman) power, as of the intelligentsia, resigned to the lack of freedom.
Brodsky's list contains the following antiqueseveral consecutive blocks of books. The next is Renaissance literature. Presented books by Francois Rabelais and Dante Alighieri, a knight of platonic love.
Western and Russian poetry
The next block in the list isWestern European literature from the time of the bourgeois social formation and Russian poetry of the Silver Age. The authors are selected with taste, according to their talent and significance of the literary heritage:
- Russians: Anna Akhmatova, Marina Tsvetaeva, Boris Pasternak, Osip Mandelstam, Nikolai Zabolotsky, Vladislav Khodasevich;
- British and American: Thomas Hardy, Thomas Eliot, Robert Frost, Marianne Moore, Wisten Oden, Elizabeth Bishop;
- German: Rainer Rilke, Ingeborg Bachmann, Georg Trakl, Gottfried Benn;
- Spanish: Frederico Garcia Lorca, Antonio Machado, Rafael Alberti, Juan Ramon Jimenos;
- Polish: Zbigniew Herbert, Cheslav Milos, Leopold Staff, Wislaw Šimborsk;
- French: Jules Süpervier, Blaise Sandrar, Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, Henri Michaud;
- Greek: Yorgos Seferis, Konstantin Cavafy, Yannis Ritsos;
- Swedish: Harri Martinson, Gunnar Ekellef.
Until now, the resonance is the list of Brodsky. Reviews of these book lovers are unanimous that this list certainly deserves attention, based on the genius of Brodsky himself.
There are disputes. Some readers dispute the expediency of reading a huge array of ancient literature. Others answer them that the value of the literature of the ancients lies in the subtle (now they do not write that way) elaboration of human relations.
Many reader comments are formalcharacter. Someone recalls that structurally "Bhavat-gita" is part of the "Mahabharata." Someone doubts the authenticity of the list, motivating their position by the presence in it of works by Nikolay Klyuev, an anti-Semitic and pro-party man.
Summarizing the above, it is worth noting the main thing: The books from Brodsky’s list served as steps towards the work of Joseph Aleksandrovich himself. Brodsky offers his way to the realization of the beauty of poetry to readers of his list.
For whom is it of practical value? Not all people have a special philological and literary education. But in some of them lies poetic or prosaic talent. How to wake him up? The answer is obvious: you should read a lot of good books. And from this point of view, Brodsky's list is complete - a good option to start.