Authors of works about animals and nature
An animistic theme is rightfully considered eternal. Its elements can be found both in folklore, and in the works of classical and modern literature. Alexander Kuprin, Jack London, Gerald Darrell - these are the authors who wrote about animals (the list is far from complete). Despite the fact that the number of animalistic works of these writers is different, and the depth of their talent is not the same, they all created capacious and memorable images of "our smaller brothers", which attract readers to this day.
Sometimes to determine who wrote about animals,hard enough. The framework of the animalistic genre is so mobile and vague that you can include a tale of Kolobok, and "Transformation" of Franz Kafka, if desired. That is why literary scholars developed a detailed classification of all works on animals:
- "Classic" animalism, representing the animal kingdom is self-sufficient, autonomous from man. A vivid example is the stories of Seton-Thompson.
- Comparative anthropology: the animal is compared to a person who understands that he has much to learn from the "smaller brothers". A sample of this comparison is "The Song of the Falcon" by Maxim Gorky.
- Animalistics with a touch of sentimentalism, when in a bestial image one sees the acquisition of something long-lost, that which causes a feeling of nostalgia.
- Fables and literary tales with animals as the main characters in action, etc.
Also, the term "natural science literature" is applied in parallel, but its thematic range is somewhat wider than that of animalistic works, and includes stories and novels about plants.
Among those who wrote stories about animals, hardlynot the most famous is the Canadian writer Seton-Thompson. Although in Canada he did not always live: in this part of North America, he moved with his parents, being a 6-year-old boy. Since childhood he has grown accustomed to nature and prairies more than to the society of people. So there is nothing strange in that the heroes of his first work were by no means representatives of the human race, but ... birds.
During his life, Seton-Thompson released severalthousands of articles written in the popular science style, as well as books that are of great value for the science of animals. Although fans of the artistic word more know him as the author of fascinating stories that open the world of nature from an unexpected side (Lobo, Mustang Mustang, etc.). Seton-Thompson is known for his paintings, as well as the creation of the Woodcraft Society, which will become the prototype of modern Boy Scout organizations. This idea of Seton-Thompson was prompted by a long study of the culture of the Indians, originating from the early years of the writer.
"My family and other animals"
Sometimes, the authors of works about animals wereare forced to temporarily give up their hobby - zoology - and turn to literature for material reasons. So it happened with Gerald Durrell. Since childhood he has been delirious about animals and everything connected with them. At the age of 14, the boy got a job at the Aquarium store, and after World War II he tries himself at the Whipsnade Zoo as a "boy in pozverjushkah". In 1947, Gerald gets his share of his father's inheritance, which he successfully spends on expeditions. Left without money and work, Darrell, on the advice of his brother, a famous novelist, tries his hand at writing. And very successfully, it should be noted. This was especially true of the first part of the Greek trilogy "My family and other animals." Only in England the book was published more than 30 times!
Animalistic theme of classical Russian literature
In contrast to the writers discussed above,Russian-speaking authors of works about animals turned to the animalistic theme as if passing, in passing. At the same time, such experiments are very successful. So, Alexander Kuprin, following the example of Tolstoy's "Holstomer," created the novel "Emerald". Her main character is a stallion, whose image is not devoid of psychologism: the Emerald is even able to see dreams.
Among those authors who wrote stories about animalsin the Soviet era, we can distinguish Michael Prishvin, Constantine Paustovsky, Victor Astafiev. Creativity of the latter is associated with the ideological and style direction "village prose", which concerned, among other things, environmental problems, comprehended the place of man in the surrounding world, the Cosmos.
Modern authors of works about animals
Literary process in Russiadecades is accompanied by publicity, the lifting of censorship bans. This could not but affect the animalistic literature. Contemporary authors of works on animals (for example, L. Petrushevskaya) use non-porous images not only as a means of allegory, creating allegories, referring to sociohistorical realities, but also as ordinary acting characters, devoid of any traits of resemblance to man.