Dice and its distribution
At present it is already impossible to pinpointdate of the first cubes and their author. In history, a huge amount of hoaxes on this topic, because many inventors attributed this primacy. However, the dice found by archaeologists, practically unchanged from the modern one, placed all the points above the "i". This event occurred during excavations of the ancient Iranian city of Shahri-Suhta, which existed even more than five millennia ago. In a set with a cube was also a board for playing backgammon, which indicates the popularity of this hobby in those days.
Before these events, scientists' opinions about whereinvented a dice, disperse. After all, in the late historical writings of India and Greece, there are references to the invention of dice by concrete people who, as it turned out, merely presented a curiosity to the public. For example, the representatives of Hellas stated that Palamedes gave cubes to bored soldiers who had wasted time in the siege of Troy. The ethnos of India referred to the disparaging recommendations of the Buddha who claimed that a self-respecting person would not plunge himself into the abyss of excitement and throw dice.
In the community of Kievan Rus this funhas undergone some transformations. The result was a game of "grandmothers" - entertainment for children and women, which was aimed at developing dexterity. The dice in this case consisted of the vertebrae of ungulates, into which lead, if necessary, could be poured. Old Russian cubes in many respects inherited their ancestors, from the form and ending with their application.
In subsequent periods of history, the popularity of bonesonly increased. They played all who could afford it. After all, in a fit of excitement, you could not only lose your property, but also your spouse or even your own freedom, because in the days of slavery such an outcome was more than obvious.
Germans, Byzantines, and later Landsknechtswere honored by the most zealous players who deified this process of controversy with fortune and, to attract her attention, adorned the bone with an elaborate carving. The cubes were made of valuable wood, bone and even metal. Already in that troubled time, the first sharper began to appear, who wanted to cash in at the expense of naive simpletons. To win always stayed on their side, they weighted one side of the cube, as a result of which the dice acquired a shift relative to its center of gravity and the chance of appearance of some of its facets was much higher. Also, since the eleventh century, the art of divination from the Eastern Roman Empire has spread with the help of similar chips. It was compared in popularity with the traditional methods adopted earlier.
In the Middle Ages, numerousattempts of legislative restriction of cubes, but all of them met with silent resistance of a society and had only declarative character. As you can see, all these attempts were defeated, because the bones are still used in the gambling industry.
Now standard cubes are allThe same construction that was used earlier. However, for use in the casino, a certain standard was necessary, which would exclude fraud. Therefore, it was decided to unify all small and large dice and accept only those whose facet is 16 millimeters across. At the same time, as a result of the checks, the probability of occurrence of some combinations was found out that when drilling out points on the surface of the cube its center of gravity is shifted. Therefore, modern dice are marked with color, which does not lead to distortion in the functioning of the source of accidents. Also, the methods of marking the faces of the cube were approved, the total sum of the three sides of which is always equal to 7. When drawing digital marks from 1 to 3 clockwise relative to the angle, these chips are called right, if on the contrary - left.
Random number generator
It is because of all these processes thatbalanced dice, the probability of falling out of each face of which does not exceed 1/6, symbolizes blind luck and allows you to fully trust it. The results of the roll of the die are obtained randomly, since this process is accompanied by a number of uncertain factors, starting from the position of the player's hand and ending with his position or vigor of movements. In a sense, this process can be called a random number generator, but their values will always be within certain limits. However, if there are doubts about the cube, they can be easily dispelled - the dice are thrown twice, and the results rarely coincide. After all, the chips are rounded corners, which allows it to roll over the table surface with minimal resistance. Therefore, cubes are very widely used in the modern world, from gambling to "Monopoly" or its analogues.