Classification of investments and their types of basis for developing an investment strategy for the enterprise
The classification of investments and their types can differ from each other by a large number of characteristics. We list the main of them:
- The type of classification under the title of the owner can be subdivided into own and attracted investment resources.
- By groups of sources, the classification of investments and their kinds in relation directly to the enterprise can be those that are formed from internal, and those that are formed from external sources.
- By natural-material forms of attracting investments are divided into investments in cash, in financial form, in material form, and in non-material form.
- According to the terms and periods of attraction, the classification of investments and their types are divided into long-term investments, and investments attracted on a short-term basis.
- On the so-called national basisinvestments are those that are formed at the expense of domestic capital, and those that use foreign capital when forming (the classification of foreign investment is slightly different from domestic concepts).
- By stages investment process investment are divided into those that provide a pre-investment stage, investment in the investment stage, and investments that provide post-investment stage in the enterprise.
Classification of investments and their types playgreat importance in planning the investment activity of the enterprise. One of the most important classifiers is the title of the owner. For most enterprises in our country, this classification consists of two categories of investment owners: external and internal.
Under external sources of investment, you cannote the following types of investments: domestic and foreign investors' funds, savings and deposits of the population, state investments, often provided in the form of government loans, interest-free targeted loans, budgetary allocations, as well as loans denominated in bank loans, bonds (securities) issued by both the enterprise and local authorities.
It is public investment that aloneof the most important for the successful implementation of investment programs within the country. Even in developed countries, where there is a strong market economy, companies rarely resort to state lending. In the same way, the state can grant subsidies to certain investment programs and projects, if at the same time they affect and affect related industries.
Among domestic sources, it can be notedprofit of the enterprise itself, depreciation funds, dividends and interest, as well as funds that came from the issue of shares, and of course proceeds from the sale of unused or retired property.
Classification of investments and their types are not raredetermines the methods of financing for individual programs and projects, as well as allow the calculation of proportions in the structure of possible sources of attracted investment resources. Therefore, it is possible to single out the main goal, which pursues the formation of investment resources of various types and classes - meeting the needs of the enterprise in investment assets, and structural optimization by the effectiveness of results and investment activities.
Thus, the economic essence and classification of investments are becoming increasingly important in the current financing environment for various investment programs and projects.