Dye E102 (tartrazine): properties, effects on the human body
It's no secret that many products,which we buy in grocery stores, contain food additives. Sometimes the composition can be found and the dye E102. It is also called tartrazine. What properties does it have? How does it affect the human body?
Dye E102: what is it?
Additive E102, which is also known astartrazine, are obtained exclusively by chemical synthesis from industrial waste from coal - tar. In nature, it does not occur at all. This substance has found wide application in the food industry, since its production is the most affordable and cheap.
The powder structure has an E102 dye. Its color is usually golden or yellow. The substance has no smell and taste, it dissolves perfectly in water and fat, which makes it possible to obtain various gradations of yellow color. The dye has the chemical formula C16H9N4Na3O9S2. However, when exposed to direct sunlightquickly decays into simple compounds that have completely different properties. For storage, as a rule, a sealed glass tinted or enameled container is used.
As mentioned above, the main raw material forproduction of tartrazine - coal tar. As a result of its distillation, aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. In production, means are required to protect the skin, eyes and respiratory organs. Deliveries to Russia are carried out mainly from China and India. However, in the Russian Federation there is an enterprise LLC Interline (100ing), which is engaged in the production and shipment of this substance under its own brand.
Dye E102 is used to color thosefood, which we expect to see in yellow. For example, if the name indicates the color "golden" or "lemon", then, most likely, the product was stained with food coloring. Here is a list of products in which the tartrazine substance can be contained:
- ice cream;
- bakery products and pastries;
- semi-finished products;
- lemonades and fruit drinks;
- sports drinks;
- power engineering;
- chewing gum;
- fast food;
- dry mixes for cooking;
The concentration of tartrazine directly depends on the type of product and the manufacturer. However, recently, this additive is discarded and replaced with a natural dye, for example, curcumin.
In the United States and a number of other E102 countriesis used in the manufacture of various drugs. In the Russian Federation, such medicines are banned both for production and for use. In addition to food, tartrazine is found in household chemicals and cosmetics.
Dye E102: what is harmful?
Not so long ago, the State Food AgencyUK standards conducted a study, which revealed that E102 reduces concentration and develops hyperactivity in children. French scientists have found that the dye promotes the removal of zinc from the body. It is the lack of such an important trace element that negatively affects human health, leads to deficiency of calcium, magnesium. The body begins to accumulate lead, which actively affects the nervous system. Also, scientists know that E102 together with sodium benzonate causes the Mirkelsson-Rosenthal syndrome. Patients often suffer from facial nerve damage and Quincke's edema, characteristic cracks appear in the tongue.
The dye E102 is harmful and even dangerous for children andadults. In most European countries, the additive was completely banned. However, according to the EU directive, this ban was lifted. In this regard, many states have imposed a limit on the use of E102 in products - not more than 150 mg per kg. The maximum allowable daily intake is 7.5 mg per 1 kg of body weight.
So, the artificial color E102 is appliedin the production of many food products, because it is cheaper than natural substances. However, manufacturers have recently sought to replace it with dyes of natural origin. Definitely it is dangerous for humans. The Union of Ecologists of St. Petersburg recommends that the products containing tartrazine should be discarded altogether.