Thermal unit. Diagram of the thermal node. Heating network
Thermal station is the main elementheating system, the efficiency of which largely depends on the quality of hot water supply and heating of the connected facility, as well as the operation of the central system. For this reason, the thermal node, the thermal node scheme, must be designed for each object individually, taking into account technical features and nuances.
The heating station is located in a separateand is a set of elements intended for the distribution of heat, which comes from the heating network to the heating and ventilation system, as well as hot water supply to industrial and residential premises, in accordance with the parameters set for them and the type of coolant.
The thermal unit (the thermal node scheme below)allows not only to distribute heat to consumers, but also take into account the costs of its consumption, as well as to save energy resources. It maintains comfortable conditions in the building with economical use of resources by automatically regulating the supply of heat to the heating, ventilation systems, as well as hot water supply in accordance with the established schedule, taking into account the temperature of the outside air.
To ensure reliable operation of the heat point, it is important that it be equipped with the following minimum set of process equipment:
- Two plate heat exchangers (demountable or soldered) for hot water and heating systems.
- Pumping equipment for transferring the coolant to the heating devices of the building.
- Water treatment system.
- Automatic temperature control system andquantity of heat carrier (flowmeters, controllers, sensors) to take into account loads on heat supply, control of coolant parameters and flow control.
- Technological equipment - regulators, control and measuring devices, check valves, stop valves.
It should be noted that the equipmentthermal unit depends on how the heating networks are connected to the heating system and hot water supply.
The heat point consists of the following main systems:
- Heating system - maintains the set room temperature.
- Cold water supply - provides the necessary pressure in residential premises.
- Hot water supply - is designed to provide the building with hot water.
- The ventilation system that provides air heating, which enters the ventilation system of the building.
Thermal unit: thermal node scheme independent
Such a scheme is a set of equipment divided into several nodes:
- Feed and return pipeline.
- Pump equipment.
- Heat exchangers.
Depending on the type of circuit, it will differequipment, of which the thermal unit consists. The scheme of the thermal unit, developed according to an independent principle, will be equipped with a system of heat exchangers used to adjust the temperature of the circulating liquid before it is supplied to the consumer. There are several advantages to this scheme:
- Fine-tuning the system.
- Economical heat consumption.
- Due to the regulation of the temperature regime at different outdoor temperatures, more comfortable conditions are created for consumers.
This scheme for connecting a heat point is simpler. In this case, the coolant reaches the consumer directly from the heat network, without any transformation.
On the one hand, this method of connection is notrequires the installation of additional equipment, respectively, and cheaper. But in the process of operation, such an installation is uneconomical, since it is not regulated at all - the temperature of the circulating liquid will always be as specified by the supplier of thermal energy.
Heat carrier from the boiler house through pipelinesenters the heaters of the heating system and hot water supply of the apartment, after which it is sent via the return pipeline to the heat networks, and then the boiler room for reuse.
By means of pumping equipment the systemcold water supply supplies water to the system where it is distributed: one part is directed to the apartments, and the other goes to the circulation circuit of the hot water supply system for subsequent heating and distribution.
As already mentioned above, the heat node consists offrom a large number of elements - input and output pipelines, collectors, heat exchangers, pumps, thermoregulators, instrumentation and others. This is a rather complicated system, therefore, the maintenance of thermal units should consist of the following main stages:
- Inspection of heating system elements (instrumentation, pumps, heat exchangers). If necessary, these units are replaced or repaired, and the heat exchangers are cleaned and rinsed.
- Inspection of the ventilation system (valves of instrumentation, automatic regulation devices).
- Inspection of the hot water supply system.
- Check the makeup node.
- Monitoring of the coolant parameters (flow, temperature, pressure).
- Inspection of hot water supply thermostats.
- Inspection of other devices, which involves the installation of thermal units.
Well-designed project documentationis of decisive importance. The design of the heat unit can be useful in the event of any technical issues arising from the organization supplying heat, as well as with repeated annual approvals.
After all, at the design stage,what devices will be installed, how the heat-hydraulic regime will be regulated, where the equipment will be installed, and what will result in the cost of installing the thermal unit at the site.