GWS system - what is it? Main types and characteristics
It is difficult to imagine a comfortable house or apartmentwithout warm water. Proper organization of hot water supply (DHW) is necessary not only for domestic needs, but also is the basis of individual hygiene. A warm morning shower or a relaxing evening bath became the usual everyday routines. But very few people know the specifics of the organization of hot water supply. What is it, what important requirements must be observed when designing the system and how to monitor its condition? To answer these questions, you need to understand the basic principles of hot water supply.
What is DHW: tasks and functions
The main function of this system is to provide waterwith the proper temperature indicator of a residential or industrial premises. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the quality of the liquid, the characteristics of its pressure in the pipes, and the method of raising the temperature to the required value. Depending on the last parameter, the DHW system is divided into 2 types:
- Central. Heating of water takes place at thermal substations (TSC) and already from them pipelines are supplied to consumers.
- Autonomous. To achieve the necessary temperature regime, special heating devices are installed - boilers, storage boilers or gas columns. This type of DHW organization is designed for a small area of a room - an apartment or a house.
Each of them has its own advantages andlimitations. The central system is more convenient for consumers, but only if its work is constant and corresponds to the norms of temperature and composition of water. Alas, this situation in our country is more likely an exception than the rule. Central DHW - what is it, a reliable way to provide comfort in an apartment or a "headache" for consumers? In many ways, this depends on the degree of efficiency of local regulatory and control bodies.
Autonomous mode is more expensive, because it requiresinstallation of special equipment, laying water pipes. However, its performance characteristics and degree of comfort far exceed the central DHW. The consumer himself can set the temperature level, control the energy consumption.
Requirements for hot water
Frequent planned outages and lowTemperature conditions are the main disadvantages of central hot water supply. Such situations occur often, but according to the current laws, their frequency is strictly regulated. Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 354 defines the following norms:
The water temperature should not be below +40 ° C, and its deviation does not exceed 3-5 ° C.
- Total time of DHW shutdown. What are these and what indicators should be observed? The total time is no more than 8 hours per month.
- The maximum period of preventive works in the summer season is 14 days.
The composition of water must necessarily comply with sanitary norms SanPiN 220.127.116.116-09.
To monitor the coolant flow rateinstall special devices for hot water. Meters are installed only by representatives of the managing organization, with which the contract for the supply of hot water to the apartment or house is concluded.
The practical implementation of these systems requiresprofessional approach to each stage of work. For design, you need to know the main types of autonomous hot water. What it is, and how effective a particular type will work, depends on the initial technical parameters.
The boiler of the storage device takes water from an external source and then heats it to the desired temperature. The DHW circuit of this type is applicable for country houses and cottages.
Modern boiler designs have a number of additional functions:
- Several modes of operation - economical, optimal and maximum. It is also possible to delay the start of heating.
- The thermal insulation of the housing ensures the preservation of heat, which directly affects the energy consumption.
- A wide range of models, differing depending on the useful volume, functional and operational characteristics.
To achieve the desired temperature level, use electric heating elements - heating elements.
In multifamily houses, the use of heat-exchanging water heaters is popular. Depending on the installed equipment, the following types of devices exist:
- flow heaters;
- two-circuit heating boilers.
As energy carriers can beElectric energy or thermal energy resulting from the combustion of gas is used. The latter method is preferable, since it is less costly financially and more efficient due to its low inertia.
Regardless of the choice, any DHW system must comply with the standards, perform its direct functions and be absolutely safe for users.