What is chickpea and why is it so useful?
Nut is a representative of the family LegumesCiler L. The latter has more than 35 species of plants that are common in Western and Central Asia. There is only one variety that does not occur in the wild. It is used for food.
What is chickpea cultural? This is an annual plant that can shoot in a rather cold period. Seeds begin to germinate at 4 ° C. Young shoots, covered with snow, will perfectly tolerate a moderate winter and even short frosts to -20 ° С. In the spring, when the snow comes down, the sprouted chickpeas do not die when frozen to -15 ° C.
Culture has a core system of roots. It consists of the main root (goes deeper into the earth a meter, and even deeper) and shallow processes that develop on a small depth. They form small nodules. They contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The straight stem is slightly branched, has a spreading or compressed form. The average height of the plant is 50 cm, but it can be lower or higher.
Oval leaves are disjointed. The color of the plant is green or any key of this color. Only one flower appears on the culture. The color of it, like the future fruit, depends entirely on the color of the seeds. Light seed - a white flower - a yellow bean. The fruits are oval or diamond-shaped. There are 1-2 beans in the pod. The period of vegetation on the average is a hundred days, it all depends on the variety. What is a chickpea from a photoperiodic reaction? It's a long day's grass. Therefore, late sowing reduces the yield.
What is chickpea in the crop rotation? This is an excellent predecessor for many agricultural crops. This is directly related to his nodules. The more they are developed, the more bacteria in the earth, and if to add to this the moistening of the soil, the future crop of the next crop is expected to be large. This is especially evident on winter wheat. Therefore chickpea are placed in a crop rotation with the subsequent economic effect: winter wheat - chickpea - winter wheat. To prevent culture from becoming infected with diseases, it is sown to the same place once in four years.
What is chickpea for the soil? What kind of work is carried out before planting? The soil is treated step by step:
- disco the old culture;
- plowing to great depth;
- alignment of the field in autumn and spring closure of moisture.
Discovery is carried out to preserve moisture,destruction of weeds. Deep plowing accumulates water and allows breathing the soil. Chickpeas are sown very early, so the main land works fall on the fall.
Cultivation of chickpeas begins with the planting of seeds in late March. For these jobs, seeders are used, and the depth of planting depends on the moisture in the soil. The seeds are not deep-sealed on well-moistened soils.
Concluded in the fight against weeds. Apply harrowing, the first carried out before emergence. The next two perform a difference in a week, when the plant will have three leaves.
During the ripening, the stems do not lie on the ground, andthere is no cracking of the pods. Therefore, harvesters use combines. Collected seeds are cleaned and dried. They are stored and are suitable for sowing for ten years.