Which is better: a septic tank or a cesspool? Autonomous sewerage for a country house
In a country house or in a suburban area more oftenthere is no central sewage system. The proceeds come autonomous system, without which normal life is impossible. In this case, there is always a choice that is better: a septic tank or a cesspool.
What sewerage to choose?
There are different ways of connecting the system. They depend on the preferences, features of the installation site, technical characteristics and cost of the device. Choosing what's best: a septic tank or a cesspool is not that big:
· A septic tank with a filtration field;
· Modern treatment facilities.
Features of cesspools
The simplest device for collecting household wasteis a sewer. Nevertheless, it must be established according to certain rules. The material can be prefabricated rings of reinforced concrete (the simplest version), red brick or a finished container of metal or plastic.
The design is made sealed or absorbing. In the first case, no leakage of liquid into the ground is allowed. If the walls of the device are made of concrete, the bottom is also poured with a solution. On top of the pit is covered with a plate with a cavity for the inspection hatch in it. At present, plastic containers are very popular. They can emerge from closely located groundwater. Therefore, the bottom of the pit is laid or poured a plate of concrete and clamps attach to it a container.
The absorption well is essentiallyfiltering well. It is built only with walls, and layers of gravel, sand, gravel are covered at the bottom. The construction is economical, as part of the effluents will be absorbed into the ground and their export will be made less often.
Note! If the groundwater flows close, the absorbing hole will always be filled. Here it is advisable to install a sealed container.
Disadvantages of cesspools
Disadvantages of cesspools are the cost ofremoval of effluent and unpleasant odor. Currently, effective means of neutralizing it are being applied. Add microorganisms to the pits, which consume sewage and provide better water filtration.
In a modern house with a permanent residenceCesspools are ineffective, although they are widely used until now. Many do not pose a problem with the question of what is best: a septic tank or a cesspool, but simply install an underground capacity of a large volume and periodically take out drains. The access of the sewage machine and the cleaning of the cesspool should be comfortable.
The sludge tank is hermetically sealed, so that it does not freeze in cold weather. It is better to make two covers, with an air gap between them.
A septic tank for cesspools is also suitable, since it can be a storage tank.
It is advisable to build a device with the possibilityfurther purification of effluents, where to their sedimentation and natural filtration through the soil in the future can be added more efficient processes of decomposition by bacteria.
What is the difference between a septic tank and a cesspool? Simple constructions
Not everyone can afford to install a stationbiological treatment due to high costs. But the simplest septic tank can install any homeowner or summer resident. The most profitable solution is a container of concrete rings. They are cheap and durable, unless there are problems with their delivery by special vehicles to the installation site. The reinforced concrete has an enviable strength and durability and will last much longer than the plastic capacity. But even here there is an optimal solution for the dacha - a used eurocube that can be easily buried anywhere in the infield. Under the toilet on a small area, it is well suited.
The first question in the installation of a septic tank isthe smallest possible number of cameras. If she is alone, then there is little difference from the usual cesspool. But such facilities are installed, and with the normal technology they reliably serve. Here it is important to ensure a good natural filtration through the bottom layers of sand and rubble with a thickness of 30 cm. The drains pass through them and are cleared by 50%, then leave in the ground. If it is clay, the process takes a long time, and the capacity is likely to overflow. This option should be envisaged and provide convenient access to the sewage disposal plant for the removal of domestic sewage.
Homeowners often complain of overflowing septic tanks with rainfall during the rainy season. In this regard, when constructing a septic tank, it should be ensured that it is airtight.
Features of exploitation of septic tanks
If the liquid part of household waste leaves throughsoil, remains firm, which without special measures does not decompose and gradually accumulates. It will have to be taken out periodically by a tank truck. There is one more nuance - the volume of the tank should be sufficient to take out the waste in one step. The capacity of a tank truck based on ZIL is 3.6 m3. Other car brands can take out up to 8 m3. Before the construction of a septic tank, it will not hurt to consult with the waste disposal services of the district about the exported volumes and tariffs.
The volume of the septic tank should be a three-day inflow. One user consumes an average of 200 liters of water. For a family of 5 people, a three-day expense is 3 m3. If you use a septic tank for cesspools,The drains will have to be taken out every 3-8 days (depending on the capacity of the tank of the sewerage machine). It follows from the calculation that the cleaning of cesspools is ineffective and an autonomous system for recycling sewage wastes is needed.
Uneven supply of liquid waste requirespresence of at least two sections for the cleaning system. In the first, most of the solid particles precipitate, after which the waste will be easier to process in the next section, where they flow over the pipe. There, the remaining large particles settle to the bottom, and from above water enters the filtration fields, where it leaves into the ground.
Cleaning of septic tanks from precipitation with the help of a sewage machine is necessary, although it is done much less often than cesspools.
The use of microorganisms for the decomposition of effluents
Septic tanks for a country house is advisableBuy from plastic, adapted for the treatment of sewage with the help of microorganisms. It is necessary to distinguish anaerobic and aerobic digestion of impurities. In the first variant, their decomposition takes place with the help of bacteria that multiply without access to air. The most economical way of their input is to load silt from working facilities in the amount of 15 liters per person. The septic will start to work effectively if the unpleasant odor disappears and the liquid becomes lighter. You can also introduce biological products through the sewage system at home, but this will cost more.
Under normal operating conditions, cleaningseptic tanks in terms of pumping out a thick sediment is carried out once a year. Disinfectants should be caused when the sediment layer approaches the surface by 200 mm. For a continuous process of processing, it is necessary to leave 10-20% of the sediment in the container. For further treatment, water is supplied to the ground with residual contamination not exceeding 100 mg / l.
Sewage treatment plants
Biological purification by aerobic bacteria (inpresence of air oxygen) is most effective, but equipment and drugs are expensive. Devices are volatile, as it is necessary to constantly aerate the effluent to maintain the life of the bacteria. With the right technology, the degree of sewage disposal cleaning reaches 99%, after which the liquid can be used as technical water.
The systems are compact and user-friendly.
Pit for toilet in the cottage
The basic design, providing comfort onthe dacha, is the toilet. You can build it yourself if you know the theoretical basis. First of all, it is necessary to decide whether it is necessary to construct a cesspool. It is made sealed, if the groundwater is high. If they are lower by 2.5 m from the ground level, you can make a cesspool without a bottom.
According to sanitary norms the toilet is located more than 12 m from the buildings and at a distance of 20 m from water sources. From the neighboring fence, it should be removed not less than 1.5 m.
To the pit should be provided access to the sewer machine. The length of the sleeve is 7 m.
Cesspool should not be located in the lowland. There, the pit will quickly fill with rain water.
If it is planned to export the drains of the tanker, the pit volume should be made not less than 3.6 m3. Under such a volume it is quite possible to builddouble chamber septic tank. Structurally, it will differ in the presence of a partition and overflow between sections. The walls are laid out of concrete, brick, stone. There are new materials, for example plastic rings, from which it is possible to assemble sealed walls. You can do with improvised means: slate or car tires.
How to make a cesspool with your own hands?
1. A pit is digging under the pit and the bottom is concreted.
2. Walls are laid out with a brick (as one of the options). At the bottom, the masonry is made with holes, in staggered order. Through them, water is easier to escape into the ground. At the same time, it is necessary to fill the laying with a rubble from the outside, thus creating a filtering layer for water.
3. On top of the overlap of a concrete slab with a hole of 70 cm for the inspection hatch. Above it lays out the manhole and the top is closed with a lid.
4. The plate is filled with soil to the ground level. This will be a protective layer for insulation. The lap is covered by two lids so that the sewage does not freeze in winter.
How to make a septic tank?
Septic tanks for a country house can be donebased on existing cesspools. For the storage capacity to function as a septic tank, another pit of greater depth is dug out. It is erected in the same way as the first, with the creation of a spill from one to the other. Only the bottom is made with drainage through the layers of rubble with sand. In cold winters, the top of the septic tank should be at a depth of 80 cm from the ground level so that the tanks do not freeze.
For its functioning in the tank add biological products that ensure the processing of sewage waste. Bacteria-treated effluents are more easily absorbed into the soil.
If the process of processing sewage in winter slows down, you should use a septic tank for cesspools, periodically taking out the waste.
What's better: a septic tank or a cesspool depends on many factors, and each solves the problem of creating an autonomous sewage system on its own. Correct erection of cesspools and septic tanks creates greater comfort in private houses and in the country. It is advisable to ensure the self-disposal of sewage wastes into the ground.