Bees: care of bees in winter. Technology of care for bees in winter and spring
The yield of the apiary is directly dependent on the work of the beesand care for them. Like any other insects and animals that are kept in a private or industrial economy, bees need proper treatment and ensure favorable living and working conditions. This, of course, falls on the shoulders of the beekeeper. The most conservative approach to insect care is timely disassembly and an objective examination of the condition in which the bees are.
Care for bees is recommended to be carried out in an amount no more than six times in a single season, with each examination to be performed to the maximum, in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety of families.
Basic criteria for care of bees
The main thing that you need to pay attention to whenthe content of the apiary, this is how comfortable the bee colonies feel and when it is necessary to help them and produce a full-fledged care. At the same time, its main points are the following:
- Identification of the general state of bees, their ability to collect quality flower dust, the characteristics of brood, as well as sanitary conditions.
- Regular provision of fodder reserves.
- Systematic tracking of the required thermal conditions.
- Proportional distribution of nest sizes relative to the degree of growth of families.
- Change of queens and the formation of new bee families.
- Taking measures for the uninterrupted collection of nectar bees.
- Preparing for a season change.
The main factors of care for bees in winter
Wintering is a decisive factor for bothsuccessful development of bee colonies, and for their productive work in subsequent seasons. To minimize the possible risks associated with the loss of a profitable crop, you must carefully prepare your own apiary for winter cold. In order to avoid weakening and death of bee colonies, it is necessary to ensure perfect care of bees in winter with quality fodder reserves. Even with the total absence of empty cells, and also with sufficient feed, it is possible to lose a significant part of the bees if their food turns out to be of poor quality. During the wintering period, there are several factors that can disturb the hives, these include:
- temperature differences;
- excessive moisture in the hives;
- extraneous noise;
- bright sunlight;
- various smells;
- undesirable rodents.
With the onset of cold weather, and especially frost, hives need to be heavily covered with snow, but as soon as the ambient temperature reaches +8 degrees, it must be eliminated.
Required temperature regime in the hibernate for bees
Optimum winter care for bees impliesthe creation of special winterers, especially in the northern and middle regions. The temperature regime in the winter hut for bees should be from +1 to -2 degrees, but the most optimal temperature is still considered 0 degrees. Warming of the hives should be made with cotton pillows or straw mats, and thin mats made of reeds are also allowed. Too cold temperature for bees threatens with increased feed intake, and this entails rapid filling of the intestine with excrement, which is highly undesirable. Too warm temperature regime entails the development of nosematosis, which drastically reduces the viability of bee colonies.
Required humidity level in the hibernate for bees
The most favorable humidity inthe hibernate for bees should fluctuate around 80-85%. An excellent assistant in the regular maintenance and verification of temperature and humidity is the psychrometer. Care of bees in winter should be carried out at a frequency of no more than 1-2 times per month, since this can adversely affect insects, because they are experiencing extreme anxiety at this moment. It is very important in winter to protect the bees from unwanted rodents, since they can damage the wood frames and gnaw honeycombs. Particular attention to all aspects of care for bees in winter should be given in the second half of the season, as in the nests appears brood. During this period, it is allowed to visit the oshanika more often in order to regularly establish the recommended temperature regime and humidity level, and also to objectively assess the condition of the bees and provide them with timely assistance in order to avoid their death.
Spring care for bees
With the arrival of seasonal heat, when the thermometer withEach day shows that the temperature of the environment is getting higher and higher, the beekeepers begin to actively prepare their inventory and make the necessary efforts to exhibit bees from the winter hut. After it, insects begin their first flight, according to which it is possible to objectively assess the state of bee colonies and their readiness for the forthcoming labor season for the collection of pollen and honey. The first thing that needs to be done to ensure full-fledged care for the bees in the spring is to carry out the cleaning work of the bee houses.
Cleaning works after wintering
During cleaning of hives first of allIt is necessary to remove visible dirt from the internal surfaces of the houses, after which the bottom is cleaned of various debris. When the bees make their first flight, the outer parts of the houses can be contaminated with bee excrement, which must also be removed. After the cleaning works, it is necessary to assess the general condition of the hives for the presence of any holes and possible rotten elements. In the presence of such - to carry out repairs in conjunction with the renewal of tightness of all joints and hive covers. After such work, not only the beekeeper will be confident in the profitability of his crop, but also bees will feel comfortable. Care of bees and their houses during this period should be made as quickly and responsibly as possible.
Preparation of hives
Preparation of the hives themselvesit is recommended to engage closely during the first bee flying, as in the high season there is a high probability that the beekeeper simply does not have enough free time for these works. First of all, it is necessary to engage in firing the inner perimeter of wooden houses in which bees live. Care for bees with the application of this procedure excludes the appearance of possible diseases of bee colonies. Roasting is disinfection, which helps to eliminate various pathogens from the walls and in the joints of the hives. Further it is necessary to be engaged in painting bee houses from the outside, this contributes to a longer operation of the hives, as the wood protected by paint or varnish becomes more resistant to external influences.
Principles of technology for care of bees according to VG Kashkovsky
Care for bees - very complex and time-consumingprocess, but it brings corresponding fruits. Excellent performance in the apiary can be achieved through a simplified system of care for bees in order to obtain the highest possible revenue indicators, which was developed by Kashkovsky. The technology of care for bees, based on his many years of research in the apiary, implies the following:
- Facilitation of work through minimal effort during the transplantation of bee colonies from the winter hut.
- Reduction of necessary operations for the care of bees from 4 basic to 2 necessary, which saves time and money.
- Reduced number of required seasonal inspections of hives.
- There is no need to strengthen weak bee colonies, as they are easier to reject.
- Striving for the formation of non-vigorous apiaries.
- Instead of taking honey from bees, it is planned to create its reserves.
- Increase the amount of feed.
- Self-cultivation of the pchelomatki instead of creating artificial.
To date, the technology of care for beesKashkovsky has advantages over a lot of others who have peculiar shortcomings, for example, when a beekeeper is having difficulty working in an apiary, which results in a decrease in profitability and beekeeping. Care of bees for this technology implies the rational use of various resources in order to achieve high productivity in the apiary and the maximum simplification of the work of beekeepers.