What is a liberal leadership style? Authoritarian, democratic and liberal leadership styles
The manual is a special case of management,a set of processes of relationships between superiors and subordinates, a teacher and a student. The main task is to encourage employees (children) to take active action, influencing collective and individual consciousness. The effectiveness of this process, as a rule, depends on the style of leadership. It must also be taken into account that each person has a natural inclination or developed skills of communication with people. This criterion significantly influences the formation of a management style. Let us dwell on this question in more detail.
Concept of management style
The style of management is the characteristics of behavior andcommunication manager in relation to subordinates. The leader, using it correctly, will be able to influence the workers and make them do what is needed at the moment. In modern science, several concepts have been singled out that examine the basics of the formation and application of managerial styles. Their functioning is influenced by specific conditions and circumstances, which we will consider below. Traditionally, authoritarian, democratic and liberal styles of leadership are singled out.
However, as practice shows, they rarely function in a pure form, since a large number of factors (both external and internal) affect human behavior.
Features of manifestations and forms of mixing styles management
First, the manager works with subordinates,various on educational and cultural levels, outlook, personal and emotional outlook. Let us note one of the most well-known regularities. The lower the qualification and the level of culture can be noted in the employee, the easier it will perceive the authoritarian style of leadership. On the contrary, democratic in nature subordinate, emotional and open in behavior, will not work with the leader who prefers a tough management style and unquestioning obedience.
Secondly, the management style is influenced by specificthe existing conditions, the degree of maturity of the collective and its cohesion. So, in a critical situation, often a democratic manager will have to apply tough methods of managing employees. At the same time, in a calm environment, he can pull everything down on the brakes, using the liberal leadership style.
Third, the availability of practical experience andthe cultural level of the manager is often decisive in choosing the main areas of management. An authoritarian leader can often behave in a friendly and open manner. On the contrary, democratic because of lack of education or inability to behave correctly in the team is able to disrespect the subordinates. Very often, indecisive managers demonstrate in their behavior passivity and examples of a liberal leadership style. Acting in this way, they relieve themselves of the responsibility for the result of the company's activities.
Authoritative (directive) style of leadership in the organization
The characteristic features for it are the following:
- high centralization of leadership;
- one-man management in making decisions, selecting goals and means to achieve them;
- the manager is responsible for the result of the company's activities, does not trust the subordinates and does not ask their opinion or advice;
- the main form of incentives for employees - instructions and penalties;
- strict control over the activities of each subordinate;
- inability and unwillingness to take into account the interests of employees;
- in the process of communication, the prevailing are sharpness, unfriendly tone, tactlessness and often rudeness.
Unambiguous advantages of applicationdirective management style are: the maximum concentration of all types of resources, the presence of order and the ability to predict the final result, even in a difficult situation. However, restraint of individual initiative and unilateral movement of orders flows from top to bottom lead to the fact that there is no feedback with subordinates. Often this leads to the formation of passive and disinterested in the results of the company's behavior of employees.
Democratic (collegiate) leadership style in the organization
The characteristic features for it are the following:
- the manager's desire to work out solutions coordinated with employees and deputies;
- distribution of responsibility and authority between subordinates;
- stimulation of staff initiative;
- regular and timely information of the team on all important issues;
- friendly and polite communication;
- presence of a favorable psychological climate in the team;
- reward for employees is the achievement of a positive result by the company.
The leader always listens and usesany constructive proposal, organizing a wide exchange of information, involving subordinates to all business of the organization. However, responsibility for the decisions made will not be shifted to employees. The situation created by the leader-democrat, contributes to the fact that the authority of the manager is supported by his personal authority.
Liberal leadership style: the pros and cons
This species is distinguished by a variety of forms, the choice of which depends on many factors. To begin with, let us dwell on its peculiarities. The liberal style of leadership is characterized by the following signs.
First, it is the presence of minimal participationmanager in the process of team management. The subordinates have freedom, they are left to themselves. The work of employees is rarely monitored. This characteristic of the liberal leadership style, as detachment from the problems of the company, often results in the manager's loss of functions and ignorance of the real state of affairs.
Secondly, questions and problems are solved onlycollective, and his opinion is accepted as an unwritten law. With a liberal leadership style, the leader usually follows him, like the rest of the staff.
Thirdly, communication is carried out with subordinates only privately, the manager applies persuasion, persuasion and tries to establish personal contact.
Liberal leadership style is not chosen by chance. Usually it becomes optimal in certain situations and with some characteristics of the collective. Let us single out some mixed forms.
Liberal Democratic Governance in the Organization
Liberal-Democratic leadership styleimplies that the manager trusts completely with his subordinates. And it's only at first glance it seems that such a state of affairs can lead to the lack of management of the company.
Such a mixed liberal leadership stylecharacterized by the fact that the performers are more likely than the boss to understand all the intricacies of professional activity. Usually it is popular in creative collectives, in which employees need independence and self-expression.
Authoritarian-liberal leadership style in the organization
Characterized by a certain duality whenmaking management decisions. On the one hand, the manager gives his employees maximum freedom in solving production issues. But at the same time, it requires positive results, without delving into problems and without assuming responsibility.
This liberal-conniving style of leadership often leads to self-will and anarchistic behavior of his deputies in relation to employees.
Democratic management style in pedagogical activity
A teacher who demonstrates it in communication withstudents, is focused on the development of students. He attracts each student to a common task. This style is one of the most effective ways to organize interactions between students and the teacher. The teacher relies on the initiative of the class.
Authoritarian style of management in pedagogical activity
The teacher usually makes decisions and eliminatesproblems of vital activity of a class collective. The teacher considers it necessary to determine any specific goals, proceeding from his own ideas. He very tightly controls the implementation of any task and evaluates subjectively alone the results that have been achieved. This style is the implementation of tactics of guardianship and dictatorship. In the event that schoolchildren take the position of opposition, the teacher begins confrontation.
Liberal management style in pedagogical activity
It is often called indulgent andanarchic. The liberal style of pedagogical leadership is characterized by the fact that the teacher rarely takes responsibility. He fulfills duties usually formally, withdraws from the management process of the classroom, avoids mentoring and upbringing, confining himself to the performance of exclusively teaching functions.
Liberal leadership style implements tacticsnon-interference, demonstrates indifference and disinterest in the problems of the school team. Naturally, such an approach can not remain without consequences. For the liberal leadership style, it is characteristic that the respect and control of students is lost, and discipline deteriorates. Such a teacher is not able to influence positively the personal development of schoolchildren.
Each person, depending on the views,character, individual psychological characteristics, develops its own style of management. The choice of an effective direction is determined by a variety of factors:
- authoritarian style is recommended to apply when in the organization the crisis of the head has become apparent, and the situation gets out of control;
- democratic - is optimal when the working group is mature enough, works at a steady pace, there is discipline and order;
- liberal leadership style is necessary if the working group is able to act effectively independently. </ ul </ p>