Structure of the Labor Market
The labor market is a system of competitive linksbetween individual participants in the common market, such as the state, entrepreneurs and workers, about hiring employees and their use in social production. This determines the characteristics of the modern labor market. It is the labor market as a commodity. The price and quantity of labor on it are determined as a result of the objective interaction of supply and demand. This market is an area where workers and employers can conduct joint negotiations about future pay and terms.
The structure of the labor market includes five mainsegments. First of all, this is a relatively small but very high-quality squad of highly professional managers (managers). Then come the staff and highly qualified employees. Next followed by workers in industries, which are characterized by structural changes and periodic reductions in production. In addition to these groups, a group of labor-intensive workers is identified, for which a low level of labor productivity is characteristic. The fifth component is the most vulnerable stratum of workers - young people, older people, people with mental and physical disabilities, people who are unable to find work due to reasons.
The peculiarities of the formation of the labor market affect all its components and the current state.
Recently, in the industrial structure of the workingforces of Western countries, there are persistent tendencies to reduce the number of people employed in the agricultural sector and increase in services, as well as knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy.
In the professional qualification structurethere is also an evolution. The very concept is ambiguous. From this point of view, the workforce includes three concepts: the professional, qualification structure of the workforce, as well as the content of the qualification.
Professional structure impliesa set of representatives of various professions. Qualification structure is related to different level of preparedness and qualification of employees. Today we can talk about a significant increase in the educational level of the total mass of the workforce.
The structure of the labor market depends on variouscriteria. On spatial belonging, the markets of megacities, republican, federal, city, regional, district, regional, rural labor markets stand out. At the interstate level of social and labor relations, the international market and the markets of the regions of the interstate situation are singled out.
Based on the criterion of time parameters, the structure of the labor market includes current, prospective and forecast markets.
Depending on the degree of equilibrium of demandand the proposals emphasize the equilibrium (characterized by the balance of components), the excess (for which the prevalence of supply over demand is inherent) and the scarce (for which the prevalence of demand over supply is inherent) labor markets. Such types of the market can be related to integrated, regional or professional work.
The structure of the labor market is also determined by the gradual development of market structures. According to this criterion, emerging markets, transition markets and the developed (mature) labor market stand out.
There are types of labor markets depending on the criterion of social groups. These are the markets of manual labor (workers), intellectual (employees), peasant, creative (intellectuals), etc.
Organizational and functional structure of the marketLabor includes, under a developed market economy, such elements: the principles of state policy in the field of employment; the recruitment system, including the contract system; system of training of the demanded staff; system of retraining and retraining; fund to support the unemployed; labor exchange; regulation of employment.