Winter rye: a general description
Winter rye is an extremely important fodderand food culture, which includes a large amount of protein (up to 15 percent) and carbohydrates (up to 81 percent). In addition, its grains contain vitamins A, B, and E. Rye bread is baked from flour, which, in terms of biological value and calorie content, is superior to the wheat analogue. The main agrotechnical significance of culture, first of all, is that due to its rapid growth and high bushiness it is able to effectively suppress weeds. Rye bran, grain and flour are also used in the form of concentrated feed, which is in no way inferior to perennial grasses in quality. Among other things, winter rye is also used for technical purposes. More specifically, it can be processed into molasses, alcohol and starch, and from straw to produce cellulose and acetic acid.
The culture was formed from a weed that litteredwheat crops. The place of its origin is Southeast Asia and Transcaucasia. In Ukraine, winter rye first appeared around the first millennium BC, and the first mention of growing on Russian territory dates back to the ninth century. Now its cultivation is widely spread not only here, but also in the USA and Western Europe. Despite this, in the world calculus among all cereal grains, rye is located in one of the last places. The area of its annual crops is about twenty million hectares. When growing rye on fertile soils and with the introduction of a sufficient amount of fertilizers, it yields good harvests (up to 20 centners per hectare). Together with this, in comparison with wheat, this indicator is about one and a half times less.
Now a few words about when to sow winter cropsrye. This is done in the fall, when the average temperature is about fifteen degrees. In this case, the probability of its damage by parasites is markedly reduced, and the culture itself is better rooted. Crops can withstand frost of 25 degrees. Germination in the soil begins to occur at 2 degrees of heat, and friendly shoots are formed when the temperature is 10 degrees. Due to its well-developed root system, winter rye tolerates even spring droughts. Moreover, in the period of its growth, the culture is not very demanding for moisture, so it develops well in prolonged heavy rains and in hot weather. It is not choosy to the type of soil. Rye normally grows even on sandy and infertile soil. Compared with other crops, it absorbs phosphorus and potassium better from the ground.
The greatest distribution we havetetraploid and diploid varieties of winter rye. The difference between them is the number of chromosomes, of which the somatic cells of the plant are composed. The first of these species appeared relatively recently and has 28 chromosomes. As for the second, she has 14 chromosomes. More widely distributed are diploid varieties. The most popular of them are such as Niva, Will and Boguslavka. In the tetraploid group we mention September, Pukhovchanka and Drevlyanskaya.