Winter wheat: growing, processing and varieties
Winter wheat is a valuable foodculture. Irrigation creates excellent conditions for its full growth and normal development, increases its winter hardiness, which ensures a good viability of plants.
Winter wheat: the possibility of high yields
Applying intensive technology, in the UKgrow an average of 69.56 c / ha of wheat, and in the Netherlands - 81.2 c / ha. Many farms, which are familiar with the intensive technology of winter wheat cultivation, receive stable yields in irrigated lands: 60 or even 70 centners per hectare. The highest yield reached 92.4 quintals per hectare.
Under favorable agro-climatic conditionsyou can quite get a fairly high yield. Wheat winter feels great on irrigated land - yields up to a hundred centners per hectare. This crop in irrigated crop rotations is also grown for silage or for green fodder, and the area liberated after it is used after a slaughter for crops of cereals, vegetable and forage plants.
Biological features of growing winter wheat
Wheat belongs to the family of cereals, to winterit gives shoots, bush and passes the autumn quenching. After wintering, the development of plants continues. The differentiation of the cone of build-up begins. Its strong growth depends on the strength of the leaves and roots, on the watering of the tissues. Complete saturation of the water cells is necessary to maintain their turgor, stretching, increase the number of embryos of future ears. This is a very important period for the life of plants. The critical period in the life of winter wheat continues from the exit into the tube to the milk ripeness of the grain.
Early watering before embryo budsincreases the number of grains, and watering at the beginning of the formation of flowers contributes to an increase in the number of developed flowers. In the period of flowering and fertilization, when the breathing of the plant and the consumption of organic matter are intensified, the plants are particularly sensitive to overheating and dry winds. The optimum temperature rise in air in this period is 14-19 ° C, at a temperature of 35 ° C, photosynthesis is greatly reduced in plants, yield decreases to 20, and at 40 ° C - up to 50%. Negatively low humidity and dry wind also act. Growing of winter wheat against the background of high temperatures and such humidity of air requires close attention.
Top-dressing of winter wheat
Winter wheat has a fairly long periodvegetation, it allows it to use the useful substances from the soil more fully. However, the need for nutrients is different, depending on the period of plant development. Therefore, top dressing of winter wheat in the spring is expedient.
Nitrogen is necessary during the growing season, but the mostintensively it is assimilated by the plants in phases, when they go into the tube and spike. Feeding of winter wheat is important in the early spring, at this time, due to low temperatures and possible waterlogging of the soil, nitrification processes can be suppressed, and water flushes nitrate nitrogen into deeper soil layers, plants can experience nitrogen starvation even on well-endowed soils. This explains the high efficiency of the result, when the top dressing of winter wheat in the spring is correctly carried out.
During germination and early development in wheatthere is a high demand for phosphorous nutrition, this stimulates the normal development of the root system. With a good supply of moisture, the roots can still penetrate to a depth of more than 1 meter in autumn, which contributes to the frost resistance of winter wheat. Phosphorus strengthens the degree of differentiation and a large number of grains on the ear. The disadvantage of it at the beginning of growth can not be compensated by any increased supply of this fertilizer to plants at a later date.
Lack of readily assimilable potassium in the soil during the periodfrom the beginning of vegetation to the flowering of wheat leads to a significant lag in the growth of plants and to the lag in the development of plants - they become more sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and soil moisture. Satisfactory supply of plants in autumn with phosphorus and potassium enhances the winter hardiness of winter wheat, and sufficient supply of nitrogen increases the protein content in the grain. The excess of the latter, like excessive moistening of the soil, leads to the lodging of plants.
Varieties of winter wheat
By regions, breeders always have individualan approach. Varieties of winter wheat grown under irrigation conditions should be marked by a high response to fertilizers, additional moistening of the soil, as well as resistance to lodging and fungal diseases.
The best for wheat are chestnut andchernozem soils, medium in composition, well aeration. That is, winter wheat is demanding for soils. Unsuitable for it - saline, overconsolidated and waterlogged places. Modern varieties of winter wheat, applied depending on the region, are as follows:
- Tarasovo awned - cultivated in the Voronezh and Rostov regions.
- Rosaska Tarasovskaya is a high-yielding variety.
- Prestige - for regions with late frosts (the Volga region, the republic of the North Caucasus).
- Severodonetsk Jubilee (grown in the Kuban, Krasnodar Territory, the Rostov lands, the republics of the North Caucasus).
- The Tarasovsky spring is grown in the south.
- August is a drought-resistant variety.
- Governor of the Don.
- Don 105.
- Kamyshanka-3 - is cultivated in the Lower Volga region.
- Nemchinovskaya-57 and 24.
- Moscow-39 and 56.
The last varieties in this list are bred for non-black soil, their grain has high baking qualities.
Fertilizer of winter wheat
With the correct application of fertilizers in irrigatedthe yield increases from 40 to 70%. Fertilizers for winter wheat sharply increase the yield, as well as the quality of the grain. In the experiments of the Institute of Agriculture on irrigated lands, the winter wheat crop rose from 28.3 to 51.9 quintals per hectare.
An increase in the yield from the optimal rate of nitrogenfertilizers in the south of the country was 10-10.6, from phosphorus - 1.2-1.6, and from their combined action - 12.1-16.9 centner / ha. That is, winter wheat reacts differently to individual elements power supply. According to the conclusion of scientists, potash fertilizers should be introduced only when less than 300 mg / kg of mobile potassium is present in the soil.
The rate of application of fertilizers is calculatedbalance method, based on the level of the planned harvest, the presence in the soil of nutrients and the coefficient of digestibility of their plants. Weediness of winter wheat significantly reduces the effectiveness of fertilizers used, yield reduction reaches 12-15%.
An important reserve for increasing efficiencythe application of various fertilizers for winter wheat is a very uniform spacing across the field. This condition needs to be approached carefully. Nitrogen fertilizers for winter wheat should be used selectively, taking into account local soil and climatic conditions, as well as the biology of cultivated varieties, the magnitude of the planned yield.
When grown on heavy and medium soils witha very deep occurrence of groundwater and a low content of nitrogen in the soils, fertilization is better divided - two-thirds of the norm for basic processing, and the rest - for top dressing at the end of spring tillering.
On light soils, as well as on heavy soilsfairly close groundwater occurrence, losses of nitrogenous fertilizers are possible, so 30% of its annual rate should be applied to pre-sowing cultivation, the remainder - in the spring in fertilizing. In areas where nitrogen storage in the soil is increased, it is not advisable to introduce nitrogen fertilizers in autumn, as this will lead to overgrowing of plants, thickening of crops. In such cases, 40% of the annual nitrogen rate is used in early spring, and 60% later.
Scientists from Germany, Belgium, Great Britain andAustria believes that to obtain 80-95 centners / hectare of winter wheat it is undesirable to apply nitrogen fertilizers in the pre-seed period, therefore it is recommended to distribute the whole norm of nitrogen for 3-4 fertilizing, and the use of fertilizers should be combined with the introduction of fungicides.
To improve the quality of grain, winter cropsWheat is fed with urea in the earing phase. In Germany, for winter wheat, liquid manure is applied at a rate of 20-30 cubic meters per hectare, it is used before sowing or during vegetation of plants. Scientists in France and the United States argue that in order to produce a crop of more than 80 centners per hectare, it is absolutely necessary to use liquid fertilizers for culture of complex type, which consist of macro- and microelements (Zn, Mg, Fe, B) together with irrigation water of foliar dressing. Such top dressing of winter wheat improves the quality of the crop and provides its growth by 2-6 centners per hectare.
Cross method of planting on each hectaresaves 50-60 kilograms of seeds, increasing the yield of grain, in comparison with the narrow-row seeding method, reaches seven centners per hectare. Therefore, winter wheat is sown in cross, narrow, strip and scattered ways. The most common conventional method is with 15 cm aisles, observing the technological track.
When in the holding of winter cultivationwheat semi-dwarf varieties, recommended three-row belt sowing, which provides increased yields compared with line sowing. Well established and two-tiered sowing, which is carried out with a mixture of seeds of dwarf and common varieties. Due to the longlines and improvement of the sowing structure, the phytoclimate improves by 10-15%, which results in a more complete, economical and productive use of moisture reserves, reduction of the negative effects of high temperatures, while the resistance of wheat against, for example, root rot increases by 8-24%.
The harvest of winter wheat depends strongly on the timingsowing. Each day of the lost term reduces grain yield by 20-60 kg. Sowing of winter wheat should be done on time. Especially sharply reduces the harvest of sowing in October, the shortest stem varieties that most demand this are earlier, which require earlier terms. Small seeds need to be sown shallowly, and large - deeper. Shallow embedding in the soil of seeds, carried out by pneumatic seeders or combined aggregates, contributes to a fairly significant increase in the crop yield of the crop.
Seed sowing rates in principle depend on the variety, the size of the seeds, the timing of sowing and the growing region. The seed sowing norm should be differentiated also depending on the degree of weediness of the field itself.
Care of crops
Care of crops includes packing,carrying out fertilizing, spring harrowing, combating lodging, as well as with weeds, various pests and diseases. In areas with sufficient snow cover, snow retention should be carried out, which improves the wintering of plants and increases the moisture reserves in the soil. Spring care for crops begins with the application of fertilizers and harrowing sprouts. In the fields that are prepared for vegetative irrigation, harrowing should be carried out taking into account the features of the irrigation network. If there are irrigation bands, it should be harrowed only along the sowing; On the boundary, the best results are obtained by harrowing with a rotary hoe.
When weeds are present in crops,processing of winter wheat with herbicides. Before the plants enter the tube, the crops are sprayed. In the same period, crops must be treated against powdery mildew or brown rust. Diseases of winter wheat are treated with systemic drugs, these are "Bayletonomil" and "Fundazol".
If in crops there are bugs-turtles, aphids, trips,piyavitsy, then use the means "Metaphase" or "Phosphamide", 40%. Operations to care for wheat crops must be combined and carried out two or three times, which saves money, labor and time. It is desirable to carry out the treatment of crops with irrigation, combining the application of the above preparations with irrigation water.
The decrease in the yield of winter wheat depends onintensity and duration of lodging of crops and can reach 25-50% in irrigation conditions, labor costs and funds for harvesting grow three times, and the quality of crops sharply decreases. The use of TUR on irrigated lands is mandatory, the optimal rate of the drug is 3 kg / ha. The treatment is carried out during the tillering period. On varieties prone to lodging, they make a greater rate, and on others - smaller. Treating short-stalked varieties of winter wheat with TUR is unreasonable.
Irrigation - the main factor of high yieldswheat in winter in all regions of its cultivation. The increase in the grain harvest by irrigation is a technology for growing winter wheat, while the efficiency of irrigation of crops increases with its combined action along with fertilizers.
When growing winter wheat, it is necessaryensure optimal soil moisture for obtaining amicable shoots and normal autumn plant development. This is achieved by presowing or traditional watering. Their significance is not the same in different zones of agriculture. In areas where precipitation falls frequently and the soil dries deeply in the spring, the intensity of irrigation decreases. In areas with arid autumn and insufficient moistening of the soil in autumn rains, irrigation is critical for the high yield of winter wheat.
When setting the watering rate, it is necessary to take into accountdepth of saline horizons and the level of groundwater. Irrigation water should not reach the salt horizon, because the salts dissolved in it can rise with a capillary current and salinize the soil layer where the roots are. Watering is ineffective at a near groundwater level. Excessive irrigation rates can cause waterlogging of the soil. Watering is effective at a depth of groundwater of 3 m or more. At a depth of up to one and a half meters watering is replaced by irrigation of the soil before planting. The need for irrigation after emergence occurs in dry autumn conditions and on lands with a deep groundwater level. The timing of irrigation should be determined by the time of winter wheat sowing, water supply, irrigation technology and harvesting time.
Optimum harvesting time for winter wheat is like thiscalled wax ripeness of wheat grain. This stage occurs when the content of dry matter in grains is already high. Senikatsiya (spraying before harvesting) crops contributes to better maturing of the crop, increases the yield of winter wheat, so you should try to clean in a short time and with the lowest possible loss.
Rapid harvesting will reduce its losses andwill preserve the high quality of the grain. It should be remembered that detention with harvesting of winter wheat for more than ten days leads to an inevitable reduction in the grain yield by seven centners per hectare, while the content of protein in the grain decreases by one and a half percent.
The cultivation of winter wheat implies, like any agricultural production, many factors:
- natural resources - direct solar energy, atmospheric heat, water in the form of precipitation, soil;
- direct energy costs for production for a particular technology or for an enterprise;
- indirect costs of energy, which are used in technologies for growing plants in the field, collecting, processing and storing products.
In the world there is a trend of overspendingpower capacities. To increase 1% of the gross product in the village, the use of energy by 2-3% is increasing. Soil cultivation by traditional methods is the most costly. This technology over the past years has led to a decrease in humus and soil degradation. World trends in the development of winter wheat, changes in cultivation technologies point the way to economical farming.
More than 124 million hectares of land in the worldtranslated into sparing technology. One of the measures for increasing energy efficiency and energy saving is the arrangement of innovative new farms - models of ecological and economic efficient production with the concentration of modern energy and resource-saving technologies. These technologies include: mulching crops, direct sowing, effective irrigation. The development of winter wheat involves the introduction of these technologies.
Use of wastes that are obtained inagriculture, becomes a way of implementing projects on the use of renewable energy sources around the world. In particular, when growing wheat for each ton of grain, 2 tons of straw are obtained. Pre-chopped straw is mostly smelt to restore land fertility. But some of the straw can also be used to turn it into energy fuel briquettes.
Wheat is the main food culture in manycountries, which is due to the exceptional nutritional value of the grain and its rich composition. Where winter wheat grows well, it is traditionally the leading grain crop. These are the republics of the North Caucasus, the Central Black Earth region, Ukraine. Winter wheat perfectly uses the moisture of autumn and spring, bush, ripen very early and much less suffers from drought and dry wind.