Winter crops: sowing, tillage, causes of death
Winter crops with intensive farming techniquesCultivation is capable of yielding up to 60-80 c / ha. To achieve such results, it is necessary to carry out pre-sowing soil preparation without disrupting the technology, to observe the sowing time, to use the optimal method of sowing for a particular farm and to provide good care for the plants during growth and maturation. Then the death of winter crops can be reduced to a minimum.
The concept of winter and spring crops
Winter crops are annual cereals,more often cereal families. Such plants in the process of their vital activity require wintering for a period of several months. The sowing of winter crops is necessary in autumn, and after winter harvest is harvested. Such plants include winter wheat, barley and rye.
In addition to winter crops, there are spring breads. Unlike winter crops, spring crops must be sown in spring, the harvest is harvested in the sowing year. These annual plants require higher temperatures and a spring warming sun. Such crops include spring kinds of wheat, barley, rye, oats and many other prosovidnyh varieties.
Advantages of winter crops
Spring and winter crops are widely used in agriculture, varieties of these plants are used for animal feed, grinding flour and further consumption by the population.
However, winter forms of plants are valued much more, because have a lot of biological advantages:
- Winter crops can accumulate more useful mass, develops a powerful root system during the wintering period.
- After the winter, plants quickly grow. They are much earlier rooted and, as a result, ripen earlier.
- Weed crops are not a hindrance to winter crops: they successfully overtake them in growth and development and simply drown them with their own weight.
In addition, autumn sowing and early harvesting help relieve the tension of agricultural work.
The correct time for sowing increases the winter hardiness of winter crops
Winter crops have high frost resistance andwinter hardiness. Winter hardiness provides adaptation of the plant to winter conditions. Usually this property directly depends on the cultivar cultivated. However, much depends on the human factor: it is important to properly prepare the plants for the winter and use high-quality agrotechnics. Winter hardiness is achieved by hardening, which takes place in two stages. The first stage occurs in the fall at warm temperatures of 8-15 degrees. The second stage is the end of the autumn period, it's a mild frost with a drop in temperature to 5 degrees.
The first phase is responsible for increased accumulationcarbohydrates in plants. At the end of the first period, different sugars are contained in culture 2-3 times more than at the beginning of the period. Carbohydrates the plant will use in the spring, which will help the increased growth and development. In addition, the sugars perform an important protective function.
During the second phase of plant tissuedehydrated, the composition of plant cells changes. Undergoes changes and brush juice, which helps to achieve frost resistance of plants. At the first frosts up to 5 degrees, plant cells make up simple substances, the osmosis inside the cells rises. Culture keeps water and increases its sucking roots. By the time of completion of the second stage of quenching, the necessary conditions for supercooling appear in the cells of winter crops. Complex compounds are split to simpler substances.
The sowing of winter crops depends on the climatefeatures of a particular region. In northern regions, sowing is carried out in August, in the south - in September or October. The main principle is to allow plants for wintering to strengthen the root system and safely pass the phases of hardening. Do not rush to sow: plants will be more exposed to various diseases and bacteria. However, in case of delayed sowing winter crops do not have time to develop a powerful root system before the onset of frost and prepare for wintering. It was found that for normal development and rooting of crops it takes about 45-60 days with an air temperature of less than 5 degrees of heat.
The sowing of wheat should be made much earlier than the sowing of rye. This is due to the fact that rye after sowing is still continuing its development, while wheat has already stopped it.
Methods of sowing winter crops
There are several ways of sowing winter cropscultures. In general, you need to adhere to this rule: it is necessary to ensure an even distribution of seeds throughout the field. The scattered sowing of winter crops creates the most favorable conditions for the ripening of each of the plants. For this method of sowing, a special device is created - a seeder. However, this method significantly slows down the production sowing process, which causes its smallest application in mass crops.
Ordinary sowing of winter crops can be divided into several species depending on the width between the rows:
- ordinary (the width between the rows is 15-18 cm);
- narrow (width between rows of 7.5-9 cm);
- cross (pass seeder along and across);
- wide-row (the width between rows is 45-90 cm);
- tape (alternating wide and narrow rows);
- dotted (uniform single seed arrangement).
There is also a square-nest type of planting, in which the seeds are placed at the corners of the square.
In production, the usual continuoussowing, however, narrow-sowing is considered a more successful option. Because of the soil compaction from the passage of tractors, the field began to practice seeding with a residual width for technological processes. The size of such a gauge is 180 or 140 cm. This method does not damage the crop and does not damage the soil, which improves the conditions for the cultivation of winter crops.
Presowing soil preparation after steam cultures
Soil cultivation for winter crops is carried outby the method of autumn cultivation. This type provides for autumn plowing and 1-2 peeling. Plowing of the field should be carried out to a depth of at least 20-22 cm. Spring work for winter crops should begin with the closure of moisture. During this period it is desirable to hold about 4-5 cultivations with harrowing or in a dry time with rolling. The final cultivation should take place at the depth of the seeding.
Winter cereals require specialsoil preparation: plowing with the help of plows and skimmers with harrows and annular rinks. After carrying out such work, the soil must be maintained in a clean and loosened form before the sowing of winter crops. This type of presowing tillage is carried out after the steam precursors.
Presowing soil preparation after non-steam crops
Cultivate the soil after non-steam plantsIt is necessary in accordance with the technologies of growing previous crops. After the spiked species it is customary to use half-steam cultivation of soil, if the soil moisture conditions are met. Work should include about 2-3 cultivations. On dry soils, preliminarily peeled, and then plowed a field several times with harrowing and packing. After collecting perennials, plowing with a skimmer should be done if the soil moisture is at a sufficient level.
If peas, flax or other cereal crops grow on the field, it is necessary to make plowing, and before sowing the cultivation by the same method as usual.
Minimal tillage method
There is a method of minimum tillage forwinter crops. In this case, the soil is treated at the lowest possible depth with simultaneous execution of other operations. This type of processing allows reducing the time and energy costs for processing, as well as reducing the number of passes through the field. This greatly improves the agrochemical and water-physical parameters of the soil.
To implement this type of treatmentSpecial combination machines with disk or planar parts are used. Such devices in one pass are capable of loosening, and evening, and compacting the soil.
What can be caused by the death of winter crops?
The causes of the death of winter crops are very different. On the vital activity of plants can affect both natural conditions and mechanical damage. Natural conditions are caused by sudden changes in temperature, high rainfall, strong and long frosts, stagnant moisture and water on the soil surface. In addition, winter crops may be subject to fungal diseases.
Freezing. How to prevent?
The most common cause of death of winter cropscultures - freezing. Due to the prolonged low temperatures, ice forms in the plant cells. As a result, the cytoplasm of the cell is left without water, and the protein is destroyed. The formation of ice inside the cells has a detrimental effect on the vital activity of plants. Spring frosts are especially dangerous since Winter plant species do not withstand temperatures falling to 8-10 degrees during this period.
To prevent the death of winter crops duewith their freezing, it is necessary to sow only frost-resistant varieties that are adapted to a specific sowing region, or to be planted using forest shelter belts.
Vypryanie. How to prevent?
Another common cause of winter cropsplants - vypryvanie. This happens if the snow on the surface of the soil does not melt for a long time, as well as when the soil does not completely freeze. Under conditions of incomplete freezing of the soil or the formation of an ice crust on the surface, winter plants come to life under the influence of light, but sunlight cannot break through the icy crust. When vyprevaniya winter crops die from a lack of light under the snow. In addition, weakened by a lack of nutrients, the plants fall ill with snow mold.
So that the plants are not affected by decay,should be compacted soil rollers, if the early snow fell. Nitrogen fertilizers and early crops should be avoided. In case of heavy precipitation, it is necessary to accelerate the melting process, loosening the snow.
Drain. Methods of struggle
Soaking, as another cause of plant death,usually occurs in lowlands on clay soils or in places where water often accumulates. Plants die because of disturbed respiratory processes: carbohydrates are excessively spent to sustain life. After 2 weeks in such conditions, the plants finally die. In order to avoid the harmful effects of excess water, sow resistance to flooding varieties and, if possible, remove the accumulated moisture.
Often the plants are dying due to the formation of icecrusts. Transparent peel is most dangerous for plant life. It is formed during the thaw, when the melt water freezes when the temperature drops. Ice can form both on the surface of the soil and deep in it. Plants are trapped in an icy trap. In order for the resulting ice crust not to harm the plants, it is necessary to destroy it in parts or in full.
In order to save dehydrated plants and avoid other serious problems for the growth of crops, it is necessary to work the soil in a timely manner, as well as to use spring rolling.
Death of winter crops from diseases and pests
To prevent the death of winter crops from diseases or invasion of pests, it is required to conduct such activities in a timely manner:
- avoid the process of soaking and vypryvaniya;
- seed dressing before planting;
- carry out preventive treatment of crops with pesticides of the minimum concentration;
- selective inspections of crops to monitor the health of crops;
- in the presence of damage to crops by pests or diseases, assess the risk of the spread of damage and death of crops;
- depending on the degree of risk, treat crops with pesticides of the required concentration.
Spring and winter crops should be grown by intensive technologies. A competent, scientifically based approach to the cultivation of grain will allow you to get high yields with maximum profitability.