Methods and functions of management in management
Management is dynamica process carried out and directed by managers through the use of various techniques and methods. It is from the latter that a system of management methods in management is formed. Correctly selected methods should assist in the effective operation of the control, as well as managed control subsystems.
Management methods in management canclassified according to different criteria. Thus, depending on the scale of their use, systemic, general and local management methods are distinguished. General methods can be used in any managerial processes, system-based methods - only in specific control systems, and local methods are directed at individual elements of management systems. According to another classification, methods are divided into spheres and branches of management. This includes methods used in public administration, trade, industry, business, etc.
An important role is played not only by methods, but also bymanagement functions in management. Their appearance is associated with the division and specialization of labor, as all the managerial processes of the enterprise are carried out through a functional division. Any function should create such management conditions through which the most effective communications between the elements of the managed system would be ensured. At the present stage of development, there are such basic management functions in management as:
· Planning - management function,the essence of which is to establish the goals and ways to achieve them. The final result of planning should be a system of plans, consisting of corporate, functional plans, employee plans, etc.
· Organization (organization) is a management function that develops the management structure, as well as the distribution of powers and responsibilities.
· Motivation - a function of management, the essence of which is to motivate a person to an activity that has a certain target orientation.
· Control is a management function that ensures that the organization achieves its goals.
Management functions in management are carried outthrough a process - an activity that requires a certain amount of time and resources. Thanks to this process approach in management, it was possible to consider the interdependence and interrelation of the management function. The management process is a sequence of execution of functions, or more precisely, a sequence of initial actions to perform functions. The connecting processes in the management are the decision-making process and the communication process. Recently, the process of goal-setting is included here, because to start any activity, you must first establish the goals of the operation.
The process of communication means the exchangeinformation between a certain number of people. Due to communications, managers can obtain information that is needed to make a decision, and talk about the decisions made to employees of the enterprise. When communications are poorly organized, decisions are often erroneous. If we talk about the decision process, then this is the choice of the alternative.
Management functions in management leadmanagers to take a variety of decisions. So, in planning, you need to set a goal, identify the necessary resources, and choose ways to achieve goals and objectives. At the organization it is necessary to study structure of manufacture and management, and also to spend the organization of work of experts and workers. The process of motivation implies the establishment and analysis of unmet needs, the definition of incentives, etc. The control functions involve the adoption of decisions on the use of technical means of communication, the coordination of the activities of structural links, etc.
Thus, management functions in managementshould contribute to the adaptation of the organizational structure of the enterprise to the tasks set for the implementation of activities, as well as the selection of employees for specific work, the definition of the rights to use the resources of the organization.