Fishing vessels: types
Fishing vessels are boats, boats or ships,with the help of which people fish for fish, whales, seals, and any other animals that can live in the sea, the ocean, the lake, the river, etc.
At present, on the territory of the RussianThe Federation has approximately four million commercial fishing vessels. However, it is very important to note that it is almost impossible to calculate the actual number of vessels used for catching fish, since many people are engaged in private fishing.
The history of the development of fishing is quite long. To date, this occupation has grown into a full-fledged industrial sector. Such development led to the fact that people invented different types of fishing vessels. There are such species as a trawler, a floating base, a drifter, a seiner, tunnels and other fishing vessels. It is worth noting that it was commercial fishing vessels that were the first to be equipped with such equipment as radio navigation instruments that help to locate the school of fish.
Separation into classes. Drifter
Fishing vessels are now divided into several classes depending on their size, as well as the way they catch.
There is a class such as a drifter. This ship belongs to small and medium tonnage types of the vessel. The name of this vessel was derived from the English word drift, which means drift. It was called so not accidentally, but because fishing is carried out while the ship is still drifting. Catch catch is carried out due to a flat network, which in height can reach from 3 to 15 meters, and its length can reach 5 km. The design features of this type of ship include the fact that it has a low side, and a lot of free space in the bow part of the deck. This place is intended for the location of devices that are engaged in network sampling.
Fishing vessels-trawlers are considered one of thethe most common types of ships. In order to increase the number of fish caught in one run, these large vessels use trawl nets - trawls. Also on these vessels is the primary processing of all the caught prey. Currently, all fishing vessels belonging to this type are equipped with refrigeration units and freezers, which are designed to store the fish caught while the crew is still sailing. Here it is worth noting that there are several subclasses of the trawler. The main difference between these species is the way they fish.
There is a fishing trawler with side trawling,fishing trawler with aft trawling, large fishing trawler, large autonomous trawler, etc. As can be seen from their name, the difference between most ships lies in the location of the trawl, from which the process of catching fish also changes.
It should be noted that vacancies for work on fishing vessels are a great rarity. Despite the fact that the work is very hard, good money is paid for it even by ordinary sailors.
The next type of fishing was longline fishing. The use of this method implies hunting for such fish as cod, tuna, halibut, saithe. The essence of this method lies in the fact that in the sea descends a hook tackle with bait. This tackle is attached to a long cable, which is called the tier. For this reason, all ships using this method of fishing are called longliners.
While the ship is approaching the point where it will befishing is carried out, the crew is engaged in the attachment of bait to hooks. The length of the coward can be up to 5 km. In this case, there are approximately 4,500 hooks on which it is necessary to put on bait. In order to lower the tackle with hooks to the very bottom, where the fish feed, they use anchors. However, there are also more advanced marine fishing vessels of the type of longliner. Modernization consists in the fact that on board the ship there is an automatic system of attachment of bait to hooks. The nozzle speed reaches four hooks per second.
Seiners are fishing vessels whose sailorsconduct fishing using a method such as a purse seine. This seine is raised from the water using a cargo crane ship. This method is very active for catching such fish as herring. The greatest catch can be obtained in the spring if you fish in the city of Sitka, located in Alaska. By its design, the seiner is the simplest fishing vessel with one deck, and also the superstructure, which is slightly biased towards the bow of the ship. At the stern of the ship there is a working space where the seine is stored and processed, and also there is a turntable, from which it is swept out by the catch. It is also worth noting that a seiner usually tows a small motor boat. In order to discover a large herring flock during fishing, this vessel has an echolocator.
Most often, a fishing vesselunloads its catch on a fish processing ship. This category is considered the most numerous, and it functions normally far from the shore. On board such vessels there is necessarily a place for storage, as well as for fish processing. Among the characteristics of such ships can be identified that their maximum load capacity can reach from 2,000 to 3,000 tons. In addition, such facilities have on board equipment that is fully capable of carrying out all processes for processing fish, including cleaning, cutting, freezing, etc.
The number of crew that serves thisship and runs on it, reaches up to 90 people. Photos of fishing vessels of this type are always easier to find than others, as the size of this category of ship is much larger than the rest. It is worth noting that such ships for a long time are in the areas where fish are fished, and therefore they are often completed with floating bases. On such bases are the administrative bodies of the fleet, the resting places of the crew, hospitals and means for communication with the land.
Harpoon ships or dredges
The use of harpoon vessels is justified only inhunting for very large game. Most often this game is whales. Such vessels are equipped with large harpoons to the ends of which the rope is fastened, and the tip has either sharpened ends or pivoting paws. Here it is worth noting that the whaling is most often carried out not by one vessel. To do this, use whaling flotillas, and storage and processing of production are carried out on floating bases.
However, at present, whaling is prohibitedpractically all countries except Japan, Iceland and Norway. Fishing is a very lucrative trade, but it is worth preparing for what most of the year will have to spend at sea.